KUMPULAN ABSTRAK | CONTOH JUDUL PENELITIAN TENTANG ILMU | GIZI | PENGUJIAN | PENGENDALIAN | MUTU | INDUSTRI | PANGAN

EVALUASI MODEL-MODEL PENDUGAAN UMUR SIMPAN PANGAN DARI DIFUSI HUKUM FICK UNIDIREKSIONAL

EVALUATION OF SHELF-LIFE EQUATION MODELS DERIVED FROM UNIDIRECTIONAL FICK’S LAW

M. Arpah1 dan Rizal Syarief1

1Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB

The aim of this research was to study the variation of shelf-life values, obtained in quantifying shelf-life of biscuits among models of accelerated storage studies (ASS) from unidirectional Fick’S law. Shelf-life of biscuits is defined as the length of time of a packaged biscuits can be stored before the onset quality change appears.

Four models: Heiss-Eichner (1971), Labuza (1983), Rudolph (1986) and Half Value Period or HVP model (Syarief, 1986) were evaluated. These models shared a common basic principle that they were all derived and developed from unidirectional Fick’s law. Therefore, each parameter of individual model can be compared to the athers. A semi empirical approach using reaction kinetics through Arrhenius plot was used as a real shelf-life values.

Quantification resulted in two categories of shelf-life values, First those which higher than expected value and second, were lower than expected.

Parameter evaluation of components of Heiss-Eichner and Labuza models clearly shown less in number than components of Rudolph and HVP models. This led to a conclusion that the more sophisticated models gave higher shelf-life values as compared to the Arhenius model.

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PRODUKSI L-LISIN OLEH GALUR MUTAN Corynebacterium glutamicum DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN MOLASE

L-LYSINE PRODUCTION BY MUTANT STRAINS OF Corynebacterium glutamicum USING MOLASSES

Budiatman Satiawihardja1
Erliza Noor1
Ahmad Haryo Oktamto1

1Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB
1Jurusan Teknologi Industri Pertanian, Fateta-IPB
1Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB

The objective of this study was to obtain fermentation process for producing l-lysine using two mutans of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The process used a low cost natural raw material molasses as a carbon source which underwent a special treatment before its application for fermentation medium. Strain Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21543 produced higher L-lysine as compared to Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21513. ATCC strain 21543 produced using a 10.98 g/l L-lysine modified basal B medium containing molasses which was equivalent to 20 % of original molasses in terms of its sugar content.

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SINTESIS KOMPONEN BAWANG PUTIH VINIL-DITIIN DAN TURUNANNYA SERTA UJI AKTIVITAS ANTI KAPANGNYA DENGAN METODE BIOAUTOGRAFI

SYNTHESIS OF GARLIC COMPOUND VINYL-DITHIIN AND ITS DERIVATIVES, AND THEIR ANTI-FUNGAL DETERMINATION USING BIOAUTOGRAPHY METHODE

C. Hanny Wijaya1

1Staf Pengajar Jurusan TPG-Fateta, IPB

Improvement on stability, physical characteristics and physiological activities of vinyl-dithiin has been attempted through oxidation and methylation. A bioautography method with Cladosporium cucumerinum showed that the presence of sulphoxide compound increased the anti-fungal activity sharply. Best activity was obtained with the compounds with SSO functional group. Activity was slightly decreased by addition of methyl-group. Stereoisomer also influenced the activity of compound, although not to significantly. Isomer of 3,4-dihidro-3-isopropenil-5-metil-4H-1, 2-ditiin-1-oxide has interesting properties such as crystallized easily, posses weak odor and relatively strong in anti fungal activity. A Simple methallylsynthesis procedure for disufide has been developed using metallyl chloride as starting material.

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ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA ATSIRI IKAN PATIN (Pangasius sutchi)

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN FRESH WATER CATFISH (Pangasius sutchi)

Edison1

1Laboratorium Kimia Pangan
Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Riau
Kampus Bina Widya Km. 12.5 Pekanbaru

Volatile compounds of fresh water catfish (Pangasius sutchi) cultured in pond and cage were extracted by micro simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction (SDE), and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 28 volatile compounds of Pangastius sutchi were detected. Of these compounds, twelve were identified as aromatics, aldehyde and miscellaneous coumpounds. Catfish cultured in pond contained higher levels of the aromatic compunds as compared to thase raised in cage.

Keyword : Fresh water catfish : Pangasius sutchi; Volatile compounds.

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EVALUASI NILAI GIZI PRODUK EKSTRUSI DARI PRODUK SAMPING PENGGILINGAN PADI CAMPURAN MENIR DAN BEKATUL

NUTRITION EVALUATION OF EXTRUSION PRODUCTS MADE FROM RICE MILLING BYPRODUCTS (BROKEN RICE AND RICE BRAN)

Rizal Syarief1, Joko Hermanianto1
Erni Ernawati2

1Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB
2Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB

By products of of rice milling, especially broken rice and rice bran, are not commonly used as food product. The purpose of this research was to develop and analyzed the nutrition content of new extruded product made of mixed broken rice and rice bran. The hedonic values were analyzed to choose the best formulation. Nutrition component was analyzed by in vitro and in vivo method. Increasing the concentration of rice bran resulted in increase of the percentage of ash ( 1.29%-3.47%), fat (1.12%-3.11%), crude fiber (0.58%-2.09%), some of essential amino acid,FCE(17.18%-27.28%) and decrease of protein digesbility.

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PENGARUH KONSUMSI JAHE (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) TERHADAP KADAR MALONALDEHIDA DAN VITAMIN E PLASMA PADA MAHASISWA PESANTREN ULIL ALBAAB KEDUNG BADAK, BOGOR

THE EFFECT OF GINGER (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) CONSUMPTION ON PLASMA MALONALDEHYDE AND VITAMIN E CONCENTRATION OF STUDENTS FROM BOGOR

Fransiska R Zakaria1, Hari Susanto2, dan Arif Hartoyo1

1Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB
2Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB

Extracts of ginger contain a great number of substances having antoxidant activity. This reaserch was conducted to study the effect of ginger on malonaldehyde (MDA) as indicator of free radical and vitamin E as one of the nutrient antioxidants. Healthy student subjects were divided into treated (n=12) and control group (n=12). Treated group was suplemented with ginger drink for 30 days.

At the beginning and the end of intervention, both treatment and control groups were subjected to physical health examination and their peripheral blood were with drawn for analysis of MDA (malonaldehyde) and vitamin E in plasma. Individual data from all groups revealed that treated group has significant decrease of MDA and increase of vitamin E (pPS Teknologi Pangan, Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian, Politeknik Pertanian Negeri Bandar Lampung
Jln. Soekarno Hatta Rajabasa-Bandar Lampung, Telp. (0721) 703995 Fax (0721) 787309
2Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002

Diterima 23 September 2002/Disetujui 22 April 2003

This research was aimed at characterization of maltodextrin DP 3-9 (produced by enzymatic hydrolysis and membrane separation process) as compared to commercial maltodextrin and glucose and assessment of its potential application as carbohydrate source in sport drink. The research showed that application of maltodextrin DP 3-9 had some advantages as compared to glucose with regard to absorption rate that was 2 times longer (60 minutes instead of 30 minutes), osmolality degree that was 5,6 times lower (178 mOsmol/kg as compared to 1000 mOsmol/kg), and relative sweetness degree that was 10 – 11 times lower (6,15-7,20 as compared to 57,00-61,00). However, thie application of maltodekstrin DP 3-9 had limitation which was shown by its viscosity characteristic that was 5,70 — 6,20% higher (1,29 cSt and 1,37 cSt as compared to 1,22 cSt and 1,29 cSt). When compared to commercial maltodextrin, maltodextrin DP 3-9 is favorable as carbohydrate source in sport drink based on its absorption rate that was more than 2 times faster (60 minutes as compared to more than 120 minutes) and storage stability at refrigeration temperature (which was more than 8 weeks, with or without sterilization; with sterilization).

Key words : Maltodextrin DP 3-9, carbohydrate source and sport drink

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PENGARUH EKSTRAK DIKLOROMETAN JAHE (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) TERHADAP PENGIKATAN TOKSIN KOLERA B-subunit CONJUGASI (FITC) PADA RECEPTOR SEL HIBRIDOMA LV DAN CACO-2

[Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Dichloromethane Extract on Inhibition of Cholera Toxin B-subunit Conjugated FITC Binding to Receptor on LV Hibridome and Caco-2 Cells]

Radiati, L.E1, Nabet, P , Franck, P2, Nabet B2, Capiaumont, J.2, Fardiaz, D3 . Zakaria, R.F3,I. Sudirman4, dan Hariyadi, R.D3

1Program Studi teknologi Hasil Ternak, FAPET-Universitas Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran Malang
2Laboratorium Biokimia Univ. Henri Poincare Nancy Perancis
3Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA- IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002
4Kedokteran Hewan IPB, Jl. Agatis, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16680.

Diterima 25 Agustus 2002/Disetujui 25 April 2003

Cholera toxin is main factor that responsibility of watery diarrhea. The objectives of this investigation was to study the effect of ginger extract (GDE) in blocking cholera toxin binding to receptors of LV hybridome and Caco-2 cells. Analysis of toxin binding by flow cytometry of 0-5 ƒ�g/ml of B-FITC conjugated cholera toxin to 105 cells/ml of LV hybridome and Caco-2 cells in RPMI, at 4„aC for one hour showed that specific interaction of B-FITC by 44,44 „b 3,49 percent to LV hybridome and by 94,58„b 1,83 percent to Caco-2 cells.
A total of 105 cells/ml of hybridome and Caco-2 cells were incubated with 0-5 ƒ�g/ml toxin B-FITC and 25 or 50 ƒ�g/ml GDE in RPMI, at 4„aC for one hour showed that the addition of GDE inhibited the toxin binding. The binding inhibition respectively were 4.76-15.66 and 12.55-24.60 percent to Caco-2 cells, and 3.55-17.95 and 3.58-27.83 percent to hybridome cells. The inhibition on the toxin binding may be due to modification of the receptor by GDE or interaction of GDE with the toxin.

Key words : Hibridoma LV, Caco2, ekstrak diklorometan jahe, and toksin kolera B-FITC

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EVALUASI FISIKOKIMIA SOSIS TEMPE-DUMBO

[Physicochemical Evaluation of Tempeh-Fish Sausage]

T. J. Moedjiharto1)

1)Staf Pengajar Teknologi Hasil Perikanan, FAPRIKAN-UNIBRAW, Malang Jl. Veteran Malang 65145

Diterima 23 September 2002/Disetujui 15 Juli 2003

Evaluation on the physicochemical property of “tempe-dumbo” sausage made from meat of Clarias gariepinus and tempeh flour has been carried out. Randomized design with tree replications were used. Sausages were prepared from tempeh flour and fish meat in the proportion of: 1:0; 1:0,2; 1:0,3; 1:10,4 and 1:0,5 (w /w). Hardness, total volatile bases (TVB), and taste were evaluated. The results showed that the proportion of flour tempeh influenced the content the quality of “tempe-dumbo” sausage in term of protein quality, TVB.and taste. The addition of tempeh flour had significant effect the decrease essential amino acids, of total amino acids content, and organoleptic ascore (taste and flavor). . “Tempeh-dumbo” sausage contained essential amino acid of 27,354 mg/ g, protein which was consisted of 7 essential amino acid.

Key words : Sausage, tempeh, clarias gariepinus, protein quality

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STRATEGIES FOR 2-HEPTANONE BIOSYNTHESIS FROM OCTANOIC ACID BY Penicillium roqueforti SPORES

Strategi Untuk Biosintesis 2-Heptanon dari Asam Octanoid oleh Spora Penicillium roqueforti

M. Arpah1)

1)Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002

This paper reviews two strategies of 2-heptanone (blue cheese aroma compound) biosynthesis from octanoic acid by Penicillium roqueforti spores. First, the production and preparation of fungal spores are discussed a long with effect of spores treatment on their biocatalytic activity. Following this the first strategy of 2-heptanone production i.e batch production of 2-heptanone by submerged bioconversion process is discussed. Furthermore 2-heptanone loss by air stream stripping due to its hight volatility is evaluated and then the second strategy, that is continuous biosynthesis in aerated stirred reactor, is addressed. An option for controlling pH of biosynthesis medium is also discussed. Finally, in the concluding paragraphs, utility of the strategies are presented.

Key words: Spore, penicillium roqueforti, 2-heptanone

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VIABILITAS DAN STABILITAS Lactobacillus Plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 YANG DISUPLEMENTASIKAN DALAM SARI BUAH PEPAYA-NANAS SELAMA PENYIMPANAN

[Viability and Stability of Lactobacillus Plantarum Mut 7 FNCC 250 Suplemented in Papaya-Pineapple Juice During Storage]

Sri Hartati1), Eni Harmayani2), Endang S. Rahayu2), dan Tyas Utami2)

1)Program Pasca Sarjana (S2), Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jogyakarta 2)Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Sosio Yustisia Bulaksumur, Jogjakarta 55281

Diterima 23 September 2002/Disetujui 23 Juni 2003

Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 is an indigenous bacterium isolated from fermented food (“gatot”) and a potential agent to reduce cholesterol. Study the on aplication of the bacterium as probiotic agent to food stuff is needed. The purpose of the study was to prepare formula of papaya-pineapple juice as probiotic carrier and to study the viability and capability of Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 to assimilate cholesterol during three months storage. Fruits juice was prepared with different formula and organoleptically tested. Selected juice formula was supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 and stored in cool room (4-5 oC). During three month storage, the value of pH the product, cell viability and ability to assimilate cholesterol were evaluated. The result indicated that acceptable formula was papaya juice added with 25 % pineapple. Viability of Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 supplemented in papaya- pineapple juice was stable (decrease of , dan Fanie Herdiani 2)

1)Staf Pengajar di Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002
2)Alumni Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002

Diterima 6 Januari 2004 / Disetujui 24 Mei 2004

Indonesia is known as a country rich in species of seaweed. The most important components of seaweed are iodine and dietary fiber. Eucheuma cottoni is one species of seaweed that can be used as a source of iodine and dietary fiber. Iodine deficiency can cause several diseases also known as IDD (Iodine Deficiency Disorder), while deficiency of dietary fiber can cause some degenerative diseases. This research is taken to develop the utilization of Eucheuma cottoni as an ingredient in the making of jam and “dodol” (Indonesian traditional snack food).
The best ratio of seaweed and sugar for jam production was 37:63, while the best ratio of seaweed and glutinous flour in making dodol was 5:2. The addition of seaweed on jam and dodol formula increased their iodine and dietary fiber contents. The iodine content of jam and dodol was 17.79 and 19.57 µg/g, respectively. The dietary fiber content of jam and dodol was 5.75 and 5.63%, respectively.

Key words : Disorder, dietary fiber, dodol, jam, seaweed

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KARAKTERISTIK PROTEIN MIOFIBRIL DARI IKAN KUNIRAN (Upeneus moluccensis) DAN IKAN MATA BESAR (Selar crumenophthalmus)

[Characterization of Myofibrillar Protein from Goldband Goat Fish (Upeneus moluccensis) and Bigeye Scad Fish (Selar crumenophthalmus)]

Achmad Subagio, Wiwik Siti Windrati, Mukhammad Fauzi

Lab. Kimia dan Biokimia Hasil Pertanian Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian
Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Jember, Jl. Kalimantan I Jember 68121

Diterima 30 Desember 2003 / Disetujui 27 Mei 2004

Characteristics of myofibrillar protein from goldband goat fish (U. moluccensis) and bigeye scad fish (S. crumenophthalmus) were studied for their development as food ingredient. Color analysis using chromameter showed that myfibrillar protein from goldband goat fish was light colored, while that of bigeye scad was slightly drak colored. Proximate analysis showed that their contents were similar by crude protein 7-10%, crude fat 0.2-0.5%, and ash 0.4-0.7%. Amino acid compositions of both myofibrillar proteins were very close, dominated by glutamic acid (20%), aspartic acid (10%) and lysine (9%). However, comparing with bigeye scad, myofibrillar proteins from goldband goatfish were easily aggregated, had higher gelation capacity and higher emulsion activity, but lower solubility. Based on these result, myofibrillar protein from goldband goatfish has good charachteristics as food ingredient especially for restructured products comparing with bigeye scad.

Key words : Myfibrillar, goldband, goat fish, bigeye scad fish, proteins

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Perubahan Komponen Volatil Selama Fermentasi Kecap

Change Volatile Components During Soy Sauce Fermentation

Anton Apriyantono1 dan Gono Dewi Yulianawati2

1Staf Pengajar Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA-IPB, PO BOX 220 Darmaga Bogor, 16002
2Alumni Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA IPB, PO BOX 220 Darmaga Bogor 16002

Diterima Tanggal 30 Januari 2004 / Disetujui 19 Juni 2004

A study has been conducted to investigate changes of volatile components during soy sauce fermentation. During the fermentation, many volatile components produced may contribute to soy sauce flavor. THe volatile identified by GC-MS werw classified into hydrocarbon (15), alcohol (15), aldehyde (14), ester (14), ketone (9), benzene derivative (11), fatty acid (9), furan (5), terpenoid (18), pyrazine (3), thiazole (1), pyridine (1) and sulfur containing compound (2).

Concentration of compounds found in almost all fermentation steps, such as hexanal and benzaldehyde did. These compounds may be derived from raw soybean, since they were all present in raw soybean and their concentration did not change during fermentation. Concentration of palmitic acid and benzeneacetaldehyde, in general, increased during all fermentation steps. They are probably derived from lipid degradation or microorganism activities. Concentrations of some fatty acids, esters and hydrocarbons, such as linoleic acid, methyl palmitate and heptadecane increased during salt fermentation only. Concentration of some other compounds, such as 2,4 decadienal decreased or undetected during fermentation.

The absence of some volatile compounds, e.g. (E)-nerolidol and (E,E)-famesol in boiled soybean which were previously present in raw soybean may be due to evaporation of these compounds during boiling. Some volatile compounds such as, methyl heptadecanoate and few aromatic alcohols are likely derived from Aspergillus sojae, since these compounds were identified only in 0 day koji.

Key Word : Soy sauce, volatile component, fermentation

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MODEL KETAHANAN PANGAN TINGKAT RUMAH TANGGA PADA DESA HORTIKULTUR

[Food Security Model at Household Level on Horticulture Village]

Dadang Sukandar1

Staf Pengajar Departemen GMSK-FAPERTA-PB

Diterima / Disetujui 21 September 2004

The Objective of this study is to formulate operational concept of Food Security at household level and to formulate the indicator of food security on Horticulture Village. Renggasbandung is a research location where 60 household were selected through stratified random sampling with proportional alocation. Data collected were food consumption, expenditure, education, house condition and agricultural data. Food security indicator were determined by applying correlation analysis and discriminant analysis to obtaine food security model. House size (m2/capita), number of chicken and electricity capacity are obtained as component of food security model at household for Horticulture Village.

Keywods : food security

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PENGARUH PERBEDAAN EKSTRAKSI LIPID TERHADAP GELATINISASI DAN RETROGRADASI TEPUNG MLINJO (Gnetum gnemon)

[Effects of Different Lipid Extractions on Gelatinization and Retrogradation of Bitter Nuts (Gnetum gnemon) Starch]

Tri Agus Siswoyo

Pusat Penelitian Biologi Molekul dan Jurusan Agronomi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Jember Jln. Kalimantan III/23, Jember 68121

Diterima 4 Juni 2004 / Disetujui 11 Agustus 2004

The effect of different lipid extraction on gelatinization and retrogradation of bitter nuts (Gnetum gnemon) starch was studied by the measurement of starch-lipids complex formation using differential scanning calorimetry. The bitter nuts samples were extracted sequentially with hexane for surface lipid starch (SL) and hot water-saturated butanol for internal lipid starch (IL). The gelatinization enthalpies of starch increased significantly with extracting step, but the starch-lipid complex enthalpies of SL and IL were statistically lower, when compared with the native starch. According to the Avrami equation, the retrogradation rate of native bitter nuts starch was slower than that of the SL or IL, whereas the retrogradation rate of IL was slower than SL. High number of starch-lipids complex could retard the retrogradation of bitter nuts starch during storage.

Key words : Gnetum gnemon, bitter nuts, gelatinization, retrogradation, Avrami equation, starch-lipid complex

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KAJIAN OPTIMASI TEKNOLOGI PENGOLAHAN BERAS JAGUNG INSTAN

[OptimationStudy of Processing Technology of Instant Corn Grits]

Sugiyono1) , Soewarno T. Soekarto1) , Purwiyatno Hariyadi1) dan Agus Supriadi2)

1)Staf Pengajar Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA-IPB Darmaga, PO Box 220 Bogor 16002 2)Alumni Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA-IPB Darmaga, PO Box 220 Bogor 16002

Diterima 26 Februari 2004 / Disetujui 10 Agustus 2004

This research was aimed to process corn kernels into instant corn-grits. Corn kernels were milled into grits and pregelatinized before drying to make them instant product. The study showed that pre-gelatinization step affected the degree of gelatinization of corn-grits, which inturn significantly affected characteristics of the product such as cooking time, degree of swelling and amount of water absorbed. Processing of corn kernels into instant corn-grits yielded 60 – 63% product. Instant corn grits can be cooked for 5 minutes. The shelf life of the product lasted for 12.8 – 13.4 months.

Key words : Pre-gelatinization, instant, corn-grits

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SUPLEMENTASI Lactocbacillus acidophilus SNP-2 PADA TAPE DAN PENGARUHNYA PADA RELAWAN

[Supplementation of Lactocbacillus acidophilus SNP-2 Into Tape and its Effect to the Volunteer]

Endang S. Rahayu1 dan Siti N. Purwandhani 2

1Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Sosio Yustisia Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281 E-mail : endangyk@yogya.wasantara.net.id 2Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Widya Mataram, Yogyakarta

Diterima 5 Mei 2004 / Disetujui 19 Agustus 2004

Functional food is defined as any potentially healthful food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains. Many researches have been conducted on the health benefit of probiotic (life bacterial cells), one of the ingredient of functional foods. One of the potential bacteria used for probiotic agent and also involved in traditional fermented foods are lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Previous research showed that Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP-2 isolated from faecal material of healthy infant is resistant to acid and bile salt, and has an antagonistic effect against several enteric bacterial pathogens. The objective of this research was to study the effect of L. acidophilus SNP-2 as probiotic agent to the health benefits. These bacteria were supplemented into tape ketan (fermented sticky rice), the indigenous Indonesian fermented food. Tape ketan was chosen as the carrier of probiotic biomass based on the high population of LAB in this product, i.e., 1.3 x 108 CFU/g. Addition of L. acidophilus SNP-2 biomass prior to fermentation of tape ketan resulted in a higher total of LAB cells, i.e. 2.1 x 109 CFU/g compared to the amount of 1.5 x 108 CFU/g when the addition was done after fermentation. Consumption of tape ketan containing probiotic agent by the volunteers increased the population of lactobacilli (from 1.7×107 CFU/g to 9.9×107 CFU/g) and decreased the population of enterobacteriacea (from 5.4×109 CFU/g to 4.4×108) in their faecal material. This phenomenon revealed that probiotic agent was able to colonize and inhibit the growth of enterobacteriaceae in the gastrointestinal tract. The result implied that tape ketan can be used as a carrier for probiotic agent and it can be categorized as functional food.

Key words : tape ketan, lactobacillus acidophilus, probiotic

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KINERJA ZEOLIT DALAM MEMPERBAIKI MUTU MINYAK GORENG BEKAS

[Zeolit Performance in Improving the Quality of Used Oil]

Kusumastuti

Staf Pengajar Program Studi Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, FTP-INSTIPER Yogyakarta Jl. Nangka II Maguwohardjo Yogyakarta 55000

Diterima 5 Maret 2004 / Disetujui 12 Oktober 2004

The aim of this study was to improve the used oil by treatment with zeolite in order to absorb the undesirable components in the oil. Sample of used oil were heated with active zeolite (A1) and natural zeolite (A2) at 2% (B1), 6% (B2) and 10% (B3) in boiled water-bath for 30 minutes. The control was used oil without treatment. After filtered, the oil were analyzed for moisture content, acid number, peroxide value, clearness, colour and viscosity. The results indicated that treating used oil with 10% zeolite could reduce the initial level of tested parameters The reductions were: moisture content and volatile matters 50%, acid number 7% , clearness 3.9% and reduction of peroxide value was 33,8%. However the color and viscosity of the treated oils were not different from the used oil. Active zeolite was more effective than natural zeolite in absorbing the undesirable contaiment.

Key words : Zeolite , used oil

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POTENSI ANTI-HIPERKOLESTEROLEMIA EKSTRAK CASSIA VERA (Cinnamomum burmanni Nees ex Blume)

[Anti-hypercholesterolemic Potency of Cassia Vera (Cinnamomum burmanni Nees ex Blume) Bark Extract]

Fauzan Azima1 , D. Muchtadi 2, F.R. Zakaria2 dan B.P. Priosoeryanto3

1Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian Faperta Unand, Kampus Unand Limau Manis Padang 2Staf Pengajar Departemen TPG FATETA IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 3Staf Pengajar FKH IPB, Jl. Agatis Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor

Diterima 20 Maret 2004 / Disetujui 13 Oktober 2004

There has been limited report on the phytochemical content of cassia vera bark extract, and its potency as anti-hypercholesterolemic in rabbit is not known yet. The objectives of this research was to determine the phytochemical content and potency of anti-hypercholesterolemic of cassia vera bark extract using rabbit as the animal model.The research was devided into three stages, namely: (1) preparing cassia vera extraction with ethanol 96%; (2) analyzing phytochemical contents of cassia vera bark extract; (3) in vivo experiment, where twenty New Zealand White rabbits aged 5 months were used. Experimental rabbits were divided into 5 groups. The rabbits were fed with atherogenic cholesterol (0.1%) as positive control, RB11 standard feed as negative control, or cassia vera extracts (100 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day) or fenofibrat (15 mg/day) together with the atherogenic feed for 12 weeks. Levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were determined at 0, 4, 8, and 12 week. At the end of the experiment formation of fatty liver were observed. The results showed that the ethanol extract of cassia vera bark contains total phenol (62.25%), flavonoids, triterpenoid, saponin and alkaloid. On the other hand, cassia vera bark extract was able to decrease total serum cholesterol from 443.3 mg/dl to 139.1 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol from 286.5 mg/dl to 95.8 mg/dl and triglyceride from 122.2 mg/dl to 61.2 mg/dl. Meanwhile, it increased HDL serum cholesterol from 29.1 mg/dl to 50.0 mg/dl in rabbit. It was also shown that the extract was able to decrease the everage fat globule on liver significantly from 27.47 globule to 3.59 globule per field view. Cassia vera bark extract with phytochemical content was found to be potential as anti-hypercholesterolemic and also in preventing fatty liver formatonr in rabbit.

Key words : Anti-hypercholesterolemic, cassia vera bark extract, HDL and LDL serum cholesterol

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POTENSI ANTI-HIPERKOLESTEROLEMIA EKSTRAK CASSIA VERA (Cinnamomum burmanni Nees ex Blume)

[Anti-hypercholesterolemic Potency of Cassia Vera (Cinnamomum burmanni Nees ex Blume) Bark Extract]

Fauzan Azima1 , D. Muchtadi 2, F.R. Zakaria2 dan B.P. Priosoeryanto3

1Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian Faperta Unand, Kampus Unand Limau Manis Padang 2Staf Pengajar Departemen TPG FATETA IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 3Staf Pengajar FKH IPB, Jl. Agatis Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor

Diterima 20 Maret 2004 / Disetujui 13 Oktober 2004

There has been limited report on the phytochemical content of cassia vera bark extract, and its potency as anti-hypercholesterolemic in rabbit is not known yet. The objectives of this research was to determine the phytochemical content and potency of anti-hypercholesterolemic of cassia vera bark extract using rabbit as the animal model.The research was devided into three stages, namely: (1) preparing cassia vera extraction with ethanol 96%; (2) analyzing phytochemical contents of cassia vera bark extract; (3) in vivo experiment, where twenty New Zealand White rabbits aged 5 months were used. Experimental rabbits were divided into 5 groups. The rabbits were fed with atherogenic cholesterol (0.1%) as positive control, RB11 standard feed as negative control, or cassia vera extracts (100 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day) or fenofibrat (15 mg/day) together with the atherogenic feed for 12 weeks. Levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were determined at 0, 4, 8, and 12 week. At the end of the experiment formation of fatty liver were observed. The results showed that the ethanol extract of cassia vera bark contains total phenol (62.25%), flavonoids, triterpenoid, saponin and alkaloid. On the other hand, cassia vera bark extract was able to decrease total serum cholesterol from 443.3 mg/dl to 139.1 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol from 286.5 mg/dl to 95.8 mg/dl and triglyceride from 122.2 mg/dl to 61.2 mg/dl. Meanwhile, it increased HDL serum cholesterol from 29.1 mg/dl to 50.0 mg/dl in rabbit. It was also shown that the extract was able to decrease the everage fat globule on liver significantly from 27.47 globule to 3.59 globule per field view. Cassia vera bark extract with phytochemical content was found to be potential as anti-hypercholesterolemic and also in preventing fatty liver formatonr in rabbit.

Key words : Anti-hypercholesterolemic, cassia vera bark extract, HDL and LDL serum cholesterol

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PRODUKSI PEPTON DARI LIMBAH INDUSTRI BIR DENGAN PAPAIN UNTUK MEDIUM PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI

[Production Of Peptone From Waste Beer Industry Using Papain for Bacterial Growth Medium]

Rahman1, Dedi Fardiaz2, dan Tami Idiyanti3

1Mahasiswa Program Studi Ilmu Pangan Sekolah Pascasarjana IPB. 2Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi-Fateta IPB 3Pusat Penelitian Kimia LIPI Serpong.

Diterima 29 Mei 2004 / Disetujui 11 Oktober 2004

An experiment was conducted to hydrolyze waste of beer industry using papain to produce peptone. Papain with activity of 691.5 units based on casein substrat was used in this experiment. Results showed that optimum conditions for hydrolysis processes were as follows : substrate concentration 3.2%, papain concentration 0.4%, temperature 60-70OC, pH 6.0, hydrolysis time 5 hours. With 5 liter fermentation jar as much as 3.8 liter of hydrolyzate could be produced with 19.23% of peptone. The resulting peptone had the following characteristics : solubility 90.7%, N-amino 3.25%, N-total 11.23%, protein 70.19%, water 5.5% and ash 7.9%. This peptone gave the same effectivity for bacterial growth as that fron commercial Bacto peptone and Yeast extract to support the bacterial growth.

Key words : Peptone, waste of beer industry, papain, bacterial growth medium.

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EFEK SUSU SKIM YANG DISUPLEMENTASI ISOFLAVON KEDELAI DAN Zn (SUSUMENO) TERHADAP SINDROM MENOPAUSE PADA WANITA PREMENOPAUSE

[Effects of Susumeno (skim milk fortified with soy isoflavone and Zn supplement) on menopausal syndrome in premenopausal women]

Hery Winarsi1, Deddy Muchtadi2, Fransiska R Zakaria3, dan Bambang Purwantara3

1Staf Pengajar Fak. Biologi, UNSOED
2Staf Pengajar Dept. TPG, Fak. Teknologi Pertanian, IPB
3Staf Pengajar Dept. Reproduksi, Fak.Kedokteran Hewan, IPB

Diterima 13 Juli 2004 / Disetujui 23 Desember 2004

Premenopause is part of natural aging process in women indicated by the decrease of ovarial estrogen production, and usually followed by development of menopausal syndrome. Susumeno, skim milk fortified with 100 mg of soy isoflavone and 8 mg of Zn was given to premenopausal women for decreasing menopausal syndrome. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of susumeno on menopausal syndrome in premenopausal women. About 33 premenopausal women aged 43-52 years old in Purwokerto were choosen as respondent. Their menopausal syndrome were identified by using questioner. The answers were scored from 1 to 5 ; i.e., 1 = not detected; 2 = less detected; 3 = mildly detected; 4 = detected; 5 = much detected. It was revealed that some of menopausal syndromes had significantly decreased, especially vaginal dryness from less detected to not detected (p=0,01); fatigue from mildly detected to not detected (p=4,07E-05); mindless from mildly detected to not detected (p=0,022); and dyspareunia from less detected to not detected (p=0,036).

Key words: menopausal syndrome, soy isoflavone, Zn, premenopausal women

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SIFAT FISIK, KIMIA DAN FUNGSIONAL DAMAR

[Brief Review on: Physical, Chemical and Functional Properties of Dammar]

Noryawati Mulyono1 dan Anton Apriyantono2

1Mahasiswa Ilmu Pangan, Departemen TPG
2Staf Pengajar Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta IPB Kampus IPB Darmaga, P.O. Box 220, Bogor 16002

Diterima 11 November 2004 / Disetujui 14 Maret 2005

Dammar is one of Indonesian forestry products which is abundant. It has unique physical, chemical and functional properties. The important physical properties of dammar include its solubility in some organic solvents, softening temperature, viscosity and its absorbance. The important chemical properties reviewed here include its properties as resin, composition of terpenoid compounds present in dammar, and essential oil yielded from distillation of fresh dammar. Physical and chemical properties of dammar need to be studied further in order to optimize its functional properties. So far, dammar is widely used as weighting agent and source of essential oil. However, now, some species of dammar are being explored and developed for sal flour, fat source, triacylglycerol substituent for cocoa butter and wood preservatives.

Key words: resin, terpenoid, essential oil, weighting agent.

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PENGARUH KONSENTRASI GARAM, PENAMBAHAN JENIS ASAM TERHADAP MUTU LADA HIJAU DALAM BOTOL SELAMA PENYIMPANAN

[The Effect of Salt and the Addition of Several Acid Types on the Quality of Bottled Green Pepper During Storage]

Endah Djubaedah1 , Djumarman1 , Enny Hawani Lubis1 dan Tuty Hendraswaty2

1Balai Besar Industri Agro
2Fakultas Teknik Universitas Pasundan

Diterima 4 Agustus 2004 / Disetujui 13 Oktober 2004

Research on the effect of salt and the acid types addition on the quality of bottled green pepper during storage has been conducted. Treatments were used 10 % and 20 % of salt, 0.2 % of citric acid and 4 % of acetic acid. The product were stored for 3 months and were analyzed for green color degree, pH, total plate count (TPC), piperine and total solid content. The results showed that citric acid treatment, better than acetic acid treatment, indicated by higher degree of green color (5.30 – 5.92) and pH 4.5 – 4.7 while the other 4.46 – 4.60 of green color degree and pH 3.5 – 3.9. Treatment of 20 % salt was more effective than 10 % of salt in preventing microorganism growth which was indicated by lower TPC value (2 – 5 colony/g). Products treated by citric acid and acetic acid also had lower TPC value, 3 – 5 colony/g and 2 – 3 colony/g respectively. Combinations of salt and acid treatments gave significant effect on it. Piperine content were relatively unchanged during 2 months storage (6.5 – 8 %) but it decreased in 3 months storage (5 – 6 %). The best quality was product treated by 20 % of salt and 0.2 % of citric acid. It was also treated by soaking in 2 % of Na2CO3 for 30 minutes, blanching for 5 minutes, addition of 300 ppm SO2 and heating in 100 °C for 15 minutes as constant treatment. The product was also feasible financially on capacity 1,000 bottle per day. Selling Rp. 4,000.00 per bottle will give benefit Rp. 60,000,000.00 per 6 months with 1.11 benefit cost ratio (B/C).

Key words : Green pepper, pickle, spices, bottled green pepper

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PENGARUH KONSENTRASI GARAM, PENAMBAHAN JENIS ASAM TERHADAP MUTU LADA HIJAU DALAM BOTOL SELAMA PENYIMPANAN

[The Effect of Salt and the Addition of Several Acid Types on the Quality of Bottled Green Pepper During Storage]

Endah Djubaedah1 , Djumarman1 , Enny Hawani Lubis1 dan Tuty Hendraswaty2

1Balai Besar Industri Agro
2Fakultas Teknik Universitas Pasundan

Diterima 4 Agustus 2004 / Disetujui 13 Oktober 2004

Research on the effect of salt and the acid types addition on the quality of bottled green pepper during storage has been conducted. Treatments were used 10 % and 20 % of salt, 0.2 % of citric acid and 4 % of acetic acid. The product were stored for 3 months and were analyzed for green color degree, pH, total plate count (TPC), piperine and total solid content. The results showed that citric acid treatment, better than acetic acid treatment, indicated by higher degree of green color (5.30 – 5.92) and pH 4.5 – 4.7 while the other 4.46 – 4.60 of green color degree and pH 3.5 – 3.9. Treatment of 20 % salt was more effective than 10 % of salt in preventing microorganism growth which was indicated by lower TPC value (2 – 5 colony/g). Products treated by citric acid and acetic acid also had lower TPC value, 3 – 5 colony/g and 2 – 3 colony/g respectively. Combinations of salt and acid treatments gave significant effect on it. Piperine content were relatively unchanged during 2 months storage (6.5 – 8 %) but it decreased in 3 months storage (5 – 6 %). The best quality was product treated by 20 % of salt and 0.2 % of citric acid. It was also treated by soaking in 2 % of Na2CO3 for 30 minutes, blanching for 5 minutes, addition of 300 ppm SO2 and heating in 100 °C for 15 minutes as constant treatment. The product was also feasible financially on capacity 1,000 bottle per day. Selling Rp. 4,000.00 per bottle will give benefit Rp. 60,000,000.00 per 6 months with 1.11 benefit cost ratio (B/C).

Key words : Green pepper, pickle, spices, bottled green pepper

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KINETIKA FERMENTASI SELULOSA MURNI OLEH Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 MENJADI GLUKOSA DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA JERAMI PADI BEBAS LIGNIN

[Kinetics of Pure Cellulose Fermentation by Trichoderma Reesei QM 9414 to Glucose and Its Application of on Lignin Free Rice Straw]

M. Iyan Sofyan1

1Staf Pengajar Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknik Universitas Pasundan, Bandung

Diterima 5 September 2004 / Disetujui 7 Februari 2005

The objectives of this research were: 1) to determine aeration rate and substrate concentration of pure cellulose to produce maximum glucose by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 at 30 oC, and agitation 150 rpm; 2) to study the kinetics of pure cellulose fermentation by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 to glucose and its implication upon fermentation of the lignin free rice straw. The experiment was arranged in factorial randomized complete design in three times replication. Treatments consisted of three levels of aeration (1,00 vvm; 1,5 vvm; 2,0 vvm) and three levels of substrate concentration (0,75 ; 1,00 ; 1,25 % w/v). The results showed that at the exponential phase the average specific growth of Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 was 0,05374 hour-1, the maximum glucose product concentration of pure cellulose was 0.1644 gL-1,and the oxygen transfer was 0,0328 mg L-1 hour-1. According to t-test, the kinetics of pure cellulose fermentation model just the same as the lignin free rice straw fermentation.
The enzymes produced by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 in pure cellulose fermentation media followed the Michaelis-Menten model. The enzyme kinetic parameters were the maximum growth rate was 37×10-3 hour-1 and Michaelis-Menten constant was ½ maximum µ =17,5×10-3 hour-1. The volumetric oxygen transfer (KLa) using rice straw was 0,0337 mg.hour-1. The value of KLa could be used for conversion from bioreactor at laboratory scale to commercial scale design.

Key words : Kinetics Fermentation, Trichoderma reesei, cellulose, lignin, rice

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PENGARUH PERLINDUNGAN EKSTRAK RIMPANG BANGLE (Zingiber cassumunar ROXB) TERHADAP KERUSAKAN HATI TIKUS YANG DIINDUKSI CCl4

[Protective Effect of Bangle (Zingiber cassumunar ROXB) Rhizome Extract on CCl4-Induced Liver Damage of Rats]

Elmeizy Arafah1 , Deddy Muchtadi2 , Fransiska R. Zakaria2, Tutik Wresdiyati3, dan Sidik4

1Mahasiswa S3 Ilmu Pangan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor
2Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB
3Bagian Histologi, FKH-IPB, Jl. Agatis Kampus IPB Darmaga –Bogor
4Jurusan Farmasi, FMIPA-UNPAD

Diterima 11 November 2004 / Disetujui 20 Januari 2005

Zingiber cassumunar Roxb known as Bangle, has antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities. It has been used for medicinal purposes traditionally. The aim of this study was to investigate whether administration of Z. cassumunar extracts orally may prevent acute liver damage induced by carbontetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. The study was carried out on 5 groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=5). Group 1 was given ethyl acetate fraction of Bangle rhizome extract (30 mg/kg bw) (KS), group 2 was given dry juice of Bangle rhizome (30 mg/kg bw) (SK), group 3 was given curcuminoid (30 mg/kg bw) (KUR), group 4 as negative control (KN) given 5% Tween 80 solution (10 ml/kg bw) and Group 5 as control (K). Carbontetrachloride 0,1 ml/kg bw was given orally after 7 days to group KS, SK, KUR and KN. Rats were terminated 24 hours after CCl4-induction. Liver injury was evaluated by analyzed SGPT and SGOT activities from the serum and histopathologycal examination was conducted on the liver. The results clearly indicated that extracts of Z. cassumunar could reduced significantly the degree of liver damage induced by CCl4. It may be concluded that Z. cassumunar rhizome could be used as substance for hepatoprotector.

Key words : Zingiber cassumunar, hepatoprotector, Liver damage

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PENGARUH PEMBERIAN GULA MERAH DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP KADAR GIZI DAN RASA TELUR ITIK ASIN

[The Effect of Palm Sugar and Storage on Nutrient Content and Taste of Salted Duck’s Egg]

Yenni Yusriani

Staf Peneliti Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian, NAD

Diterima 14 Juli 2004 / Disetujui 15 Maret 2005

This research used 150 duck eggs age one as subject day. There were two factors analyzed here. The first was the amount of palm sugar which consisted of 25 grams, 50 grams, and 75 grams. The second factor were the storage duration which consisted of 3, 4, and 5 weeks. The nutrient content parameters measured were rates protein, fat and ash content. Sensory quality parameters measured were color and taste. The analysis showed that in processing/making salted duck egg, palm sugar addition influenced protein content significantly (Fc = 7,0 > Ftab = 4,5) fat content ( Fc 67,3 > Ftab= 8,7) and ash content (Fc = 64,6 > F tab = 8,7) very significantly. However, organoleptic test showed that palm sugar addition did not influenced color and taste of salted duck egg significantly. Storage duration influenced protein content significantly (Fc= 6,9 F tab = 8,7) but did not significantly influenced ash content (Fc = 3,5 C. the stability of the anthocyanins was as effected by pH, heat, oxidator, and light was investigated. The extraction using combination of water and isopropanol at 270C showed the highest total yield, i.e 71.54% (db). Furthermore, the highest anthocyanin concentration and yield were obtained in the extracts using combination of water and ethanol at 270>C i.e. 10 007.03 mg/L (db) and 2.78% (db), respectively. At low pH, the pigment extracts sowed high stability; and gradually decreased and lost color when the pH was increased. The greatest color intensity (red) was obtained at pHs values less than 3.5. The anthocyanins were relatively stable during heating temperature of 40 and 600C in which more than 80% of pigment could be maintained for 4 hour of heating. Heating at high temperatures (80 and 1000C) decreased the color stability more than 80%. Presence of oxidator H2O2 reduced the stability up to 73.52%. The UV and flouresecent light exposure for 7 days also reduced the stability by 11.47% and 10.62%, respectively.

Key words: Anthocyanins, Jambolan skin, Extraction, pigment stability

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PURIFIKASI DAN KATRAKTERISTIK ENZIM LIPOKSIGENASE KACANG TANAH

Purification and Characterization of Peanut Lipoxygenase Enzime

B.A.S. Santosa 1, A. Eliana 2 dan S. Widowati 1

1 Balai Besar Litbang Pascapanen Pertanian, Badan Litbang Pertanian 2Alumnus Institut Pertanian Bogor

Diterima 20 Juni 2005 / Disetujui 10 Agustus 2005

Fat oxidation of peanut is a serious problem, because it could reduce of peanut quality and form a hydroperoxide compound. Hydroperoxide could be broken down into acid, ketone and low peptide, and resulted in volatile compounds with undersirable aroma. Extraction on enzyme was carried out by water, while purification and fractination were conducted using ammonium sulphate and chromatography. The objective of this research was to evaluate of the protein fraction, lipoxygenase properties, and enzyme activity during fractionation. The result showed that the highest fraction of protein was globulin, i.e 41-48% of total extracted protein, and the activity of lipoxygenase enzyme in the albumin fraction was 40-54% of the total activity. Purification of lipoxygenase enzyme was conducted by using ammonium sulphate (40-60% saturated) and this increased its specific activity up to 2.0-4.2 timer from the crude enzyme. Separation of lipoxygenase enzyme using sephadex G-150 revealed 3 (tree) peaks of activities, with specific activities 6.0-70.0 fold of the crude enzyme. Lipoxygenase enzyme of gajah variety denatured when heated at 700C during 30 minutes. The activition energy of lipoxygenase enzyme from Gajah variety (19.083 Cal/Mol) was relatively lower than 1509 and 1512 which were, 25.446 Cal/Mol and 24.780 Cal/Mol, respectively. The result showed that lipoxygenase enzyme from Gajah variety was relativeky more heat stable as compared to the 1509 and 1512 lines. Lower activation energy of lipoxygenase enzyme indicated that effect of temperature alteration toward ‘k’ value was smaller. Lipoxygenase enzyme was active at pH higher than 3.0 or lower than 10.0. the data indicated that ‘Km’ value of lipoxygenase enzyme from Gajah variety was higher than that of 1509 and 1512 lines. It means that lipoxygenase enzyme from 1509 and 1512 lines more reactive that gajah variety.

Key words : Lipoxygenase, peanut, purification

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KARAKTERISTIK SERBUK LABU KUNING (Cucurbita moschata)

Characteristic of Pumpkin Powder (Cucurbita moschata)

Sri Usmiati 1, D. Setyaningsih 2,E.Y Purwani 1, S.Yuliani 1 dan Maria O.G 3

1Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian Bogor, 2Departemen Teknologi Industri Pertanian Fateta IPB, 3Mahasiswa Departemen TIN Fateta IPB

Diterima tanggal 2 Maret 2005 / Disetujui 17 Juli 2005

Instant powder of pumpkins was made by mollen dryer in order to extend the product shelf life The aim of the research was to determine the characteristics of the pumpkin powder. The research had been designed using completely randomized block factorial pattern, two levels of drying-up temperature and three levels of mollen dryer speed rotation on two blocks of pumpkin (I and II groups). The parameters measured were percentage of yield, water content, ash, solubility, and sugar, pH, bulk density (g/ml), beta-carotene (µg/g), colors, and hedonic test (scale 1 = not accepted through 5 = really accepted). The research result showed that the drying temperature affected solubility, and the speed rotation affected sugar content of pumpkin powder. The best pumpkin powder was produced by mollen dryer at 60ºC degree and 6 rpm speed rotation which was characterized by high yield and solubility, also produced best hedonic value on taste, color and performance as compared to the other treatment.

Key words : Pumpkin, drying-up temperature, speed rotation, mollen dryer

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PENGERING SUHU RENDAH UNTUK MENJAGA MUTU BAHAN PERTANIAN

Low Temperature Drying to Maintain the Quality of Agricultural Products

R. Sarwono

Pusat Penelitian Kimia (P2K)-LIPI Kopmlek Puspitek, Serpong-Tanggerang (15314)

Diterima 20Mei 2005 / Disetujui 29 Agustus 2005

Drying equipment is an important unit operation in industrial processes. Reducing moisture content in order to prolog the storage time is very commonly used. There are many agricultural product which are very heat sensitive. To maintain the essential ingredient in those product, drying process should be applied at low temperature drying process gave lower drying rate, is time consuming and in general costly. Increasing drying rate by reducing the absolute humidity is this recommended. There are many ways to dry the air, firstly moisture is condensed in evaporator and then dried air is heated in condenser. Is conducted if the drying system in connected with heat pump system. Secondly, moisture is absorbed by hygroscopic materials such as CaO. Water absorbed and reacted with CaO become Ca(OH)2 in exothermic reaction, and simultaneously dried air is heated.

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PERANAN PROGRAM STUDI TEKNIK PANGAN (FOO ENGINEERING) UNTUK MENUNJANG PEMBANGUNAN INDUSTRI PANGAN DI INDONESIA

The Roles of Engineering fot the Development of Agro Industries in indonesia

Budi Rahardjo dan Suhargo

Laboratorium Teknik Pangan dan Proses Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada-Yogyakarta

Diterima 20Mei 2005 / Disetujui 29 September 2005

At this time more than 60 % of Indonesian population still depend on the agricultural sector. Accordingly, in future agro and food industries are expected to be the main steppingstone for the economic development in Indonesia. In order to make the agricultural products competitive in the global market; it is necessary that the development of food or agro industries is supported by technology especially in the food product development and their processing. The food product development consist of food product design, process design, equipment and machinery design and packaging design. Consequently the food product development requires the knowledge of food science, and is necessary to be supported by the knowledge of engineering or know as food engineering. As a course, food engineering is already offered in the study program of food science and technology. However, food engineering is not developed yet as a study program as well as in the other countries, the study program in food engineering is necessarily different from the study program of food science and technology. Food engineering is scientific discipline to study and apply the engineering principles in food preservation, conservation, conversion and distribution. In several countries both study programs are paralely offered as two different study programs with deferent competence and knowledge. The competency of food engineering is mainly in the application of engineering knowledge for food design, design and construction of food process equipment, process design, process equipment operation and management. Accordingly, the content of the food engineering curriculum covers engineering and physics (50-60%), biology and food science (20-30%) and other supporting knowledge’s (statics, communication, etc, 10-20%). The graduates in food engineering will have opportunities working as engineers as well as designing, constructing and operating process equipment in food industries, as researchers and developers of food processes in research institution, as consultant for food industries, or as teaching staff in universities or higher educations. Therefore, study program in food engineering is important to be established. It will significantly support development appropriate technology for agro industries in Indonesia. This study program can be organized together as the study programs in food science and technology and agricultural engineering that already exist in several universities.

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Design by ” DKSI IPB “: JURNAL TEKNOLOGI DAN INDUSTRI PANGAN

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