PENELITIAN/KAJIAN/SKRIPSI/ GIZI DAN ILMU PANGAN / TEKNOLOGI PENGOLAHAN PANGAN/ HASIL PERTANIAN/PENGAWASAN : PENGUJIAN PENGENDALIAN ANALISIS MUTU

PURIFIKASI DAN KARAKTERISTIK PROTEASE DARI PATOGEN Pseudomonas aeruginosa

[Purification and Charaterization of Protease from Pathogenic Bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa]

Ace Baekhari 1), Maggy T. Suhartono 2), Nurheni Sri Palupi 2) dan Tati Nurhayati 3)

1) Program Studi Teknologi Hasil Perikanan, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sriwijaya
2) Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Institut Pertanian Bogor
3) Departemen Teknologi Hasil Perairan, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Diterima 28 Juli 2007 / Disetujui 30 Juni 2008

In the last decade, concern on protease as medical target for overcoming bacterial diseases and viral diseases has been rapidly increased because of the obvious involvement of this enzyme in the molecular of the diseases. The purpose of this research was to purify and characterize protease from pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacteria were grown in media containing triptone 1%, NaCl 1% and Yeast extract 0.5%. protease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was purified using column chromatography with Sephadex G-100 gel. There were three peaks of enzyme protein, which were detected on fractions 14,17 and 30. the optimum pH of the extracelluler protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 8. The optimum temperature of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 300C. Fe3+ (1dan 5 mM) was strong activator and Co 2+ was strong inhibitor. Study on the effect of metals ion and specific inhibitors indicated that protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was serin metaloprotease. The apparent moleculer weights, as determined by SDS-PAGE and zymogram technique, 36 kD and 42 kD.

Key word : Protease, characterization, purification, pathogenic bacteria P. aeruginosa

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PROSES RECOVERY BAHAN FLAVOR PADA LIMBAH CAIR PENGOLAHAN RANJUNGAN DENGAN TEKNOLOGI REVERSE OSMOSIS

[Recovery of Flavor Components from Blue Crab Processing Wastewater By Reverse Osmosis Technology]

Uju, B Ibrahim, W. Trilaksani, T. Nurhayati dan B. Riyanto

Departemen Teknologi Hasil Perairan FPIK-IPB

Diterima 26 Juli 2007 / Disetujui 30 Juni 2008

The waste water of blue crab pasteurization is potential to cause environmental pollution. It contained TSS 206.5 mg/L, BOD 7,092.6 mg/L and COD 51,000 mg/L. However the was the water also contains an interesting flavor compounds, which composed of 0.23% non protein nitrogen and 17 amino acids with the highest being glutamic acid. In this work, pre-filtration steps using filter of 0.3 µ size followed by reverse osmosis has been used to reduce these pollutions load and recover the flavor compound. During pre-filtration steps, TSS was reduced to 74.8% so the turbidity increased up to 31%. After reverse osmosis process, BOD, and COD were decreased more than 99%, and there was no amino acids detected in the permeate stream. Factors that affect performance of reverse osmosis were transmembrane pressure, temperature and pH. Higher transmembrane pressure, temperature and pH resulted in the higher permeate flux.

Key word : blue crab, flavor, reserve osmosis

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PROSES RECOVERY BAHAN FLAVOR PADA LIMBAH CAIR PENGOLAHAN RANJUNGAN DENGAN TEKNOLOGI REVERSE OSMOSIS

[Recovery of Flavor Components from Blue Crab Processing Wastewater By Reverse Osmosis Technology]

Uju, B Ibrahim, W. Trilaksani, T. Nurhayati dan B. Riyanto

Departemen Teknologi Hasil Perairan FPIK-IPB

Diterima 26 Juli 2007 / Disetujui 30 Juni 2008

The waste water of blue crab pasteurization is potential to cause environmental pollution. It contained TSS 206.5 mg/L, BOD 7,092.6 mg/L and COD 51,000 mg/L. However the was the water also contains an interesting flavor compounds, which composed of 0.23% non protein nitrogen and 17 amino acids with the highest being glutamic acid. In this work, pre-filtration steps using filter of 0.3 µ size followed by reverse osmosis has been used to reduce these pollutions load and recover the flavor compound. During pre-filtration steps, TSS was reduced to 74.8% so the turbidity increased up to 31%. After reverse osmosis process, BOD, and COD were decreased more than 99%, and there was no amino acids detected in the permeate stream. Factors that affect performance of reverse osmosis were transmembrane pressure, temperature and pH. Higher transmembrane pressure, temperature and pH resulted in the higher permeate flux.

Key word : blue crab, flavor, reserve osmosis

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PERUBAHAN KARAKTERISTIK SURIMI IKAN CUCUT DAN IKAN PARI AKIBAT PENGARUH PENGKOMPOSISIAN DAN PENYIMPANAN DINGIN DAGING LUMAT

[Charateristic Changes of Shark and Stingray Surimi as Affected By Compositioning and Chill Storage of the Mince Fish]

Joko Santoso 1), Ade Wiguna Nur Yasin 2, dan Santoso 3

1) Depertemen Teknologi Hasil Perairan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor
2) Divisi Aplikasi dan Pengembangan Pengolahan Pangan, PT. Central Pertiwi Bahari (CPB), Tulang Bawang Lampung
3) Balai Besar Pengembangan dan Pengendalian Hasil Perikanan, Departemen Kelautan dan Perikanan, Muara Baru Ujung, Jakarta

Diterima 28 Juli 2007 / Disetujui 23 Juni 2008

This experiment was carried out to study the effects of leaching, compositioning, and chill storage of mince fish on the characteristic changes of surimi from shark and stingray as much as 88% and 100%, respectively; with the salt soluble protein contents were 13.52% and 13.24%, repectively. Mixture of mince shark and stingray in proportion of 25% : 75% (A1B A2) gave the highest value of gel strength being 209.29 g.cm in comparison with others composition. During chill storage , deterioration process still occurred as indicated by increasing value of acidity and content of base volatile compounds i.e. total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN) and tri-methyl amine (TMA); and also decreasing contents of urea and salt soluble protein. Deterioration process of mince fish also affected the physical characteristic of surimi i.e decreasing values of gel strength, water holding capacity (WHC), and colour (whiteness).

Key word : chill storage, compositioning, mince-fish, shark, stingray, surimi

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PERAN MISEL SURFAKTAN TERHADAP PARTISI ANTIOKSIDAN DAN STABILITAS OKSIDATIF EMULSI MINYAK DALAM AIR

[The Role of Surfactant Micelles on the Partitioning of Antioxidant and the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsion]

Posman Sibuea1), Sri Raharjo2), Umar Santoso2), dan Zuheid Noor2)

1) Dosen di Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian Unika Santo Thomas Medan.
2) Dosen Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian-UGM-Yogyakarta

Diterima 30 Januari 2008 / Disetujui 16 Juni 2008

Lipid oxidation system in which the fat is dispersed as emulsion droplets is still not well understood, although a large number of food exist partially or entirely in the form of emulsions. Therefore, this study was intended to examine how surfactant micelles influence the partitioning of antioxidant and hydroperoxides and how it alter the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsion. To determine the ability of surfactant micelles upon the partitioning of antioxidant in oil-in-water emulsion, this type of emulsion, containing quercetin at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm, were prepared with polyoxyethylene 100 stearyl ether (Brij 700) or polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) with acetate or phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 or 7.0). Structurally Birj 700 has 5 times longer polyoxyethylene groups than Tween 20. After preparation of the emulsion, surfactant micelles (0-2%) were incorporated into the continuous phase to give a final lipid concentration of 5%. Lipid oxidation rates, as determined by the formation of lipid hydroperoxides, decreased with increasing quercetin concentrations. At pH 3, the peroxide value was higher than that at pH 7. Brij 70 decreased production of lipid hydroperoxides from palm oil-in-water-emulsions compared to the emulsions stabilized by Tween 20. the result showed that solubilization of quercetin into the aqueous into the aqueous phase by Brij or Tween micelles did not alter the oxidative stability of palm oil-in-water emulsion, suggesting that surfactant micelle influenced the oxidation rate by mechanism other than antioxidant solubilization.

Key word : Quercetin, surfactant micelles, and oxidative stability

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PENGARUH LAMA PENYIMPANAN, KELEMBABAN RELATIF (RH) DAN SUHU TERHADAP KESTABILAN GARAM BERIODIUM

[Effects of Length of Storage, Relative Humidity (RH) and Temperature On the Stability of lodized Salt]

Wisnu Cahyadi

Jurusan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Pasundan Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi No. 193 Bandung 40153

Diterima 12 Desember 2007 / Disetujui 16 Juni 2008

Iodine deficiency disorders (IID) is still a major public health problem in several areas of the world. Especially in developing countries. The problem of iodine decrease or loss in iodized salt and food-stuff during processing is still the a controversial issue, among public, functionary, even the scientist. The stability of iodine is influenced by the food type, water content and cooking temperature. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of length of storage, relative humidity (RH) and temperature on the stability of iodized salt. Analysis of iodium was performed using Ion Pair High Perfomance Liquid Chromatography (HPCL). The rate of iodine decrease was influenced by salt origin, temperature, packaging material and RH during storage. The result of research showed that the percentage of iodate decrease in iodized salt packaged by high density polyethylene (HDPE) were 66.86% and 50.85% during storage for 14 days at temperature of 400C, RH 60% and 100%. Other result showed that the percentage of iodate decrease in iodized salt was 46.51% during storage for 28 days at temperature of 25.50C and RH 60-65%.

Key words : Iodine Deficiency Disorders, stability of iodized salt, ion pair-HPLC

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KAJIAN FORMULASI BUMBU INSTAN BINTHE BILUHUTA, KARAKTERISTIK HIDRATASI DAN PENDUGAAN UMUR SIMPANNYA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE PENDEKATAN KADAR AIR KRITIS

[Study of Biluhuta Seasoning Formulation, Hydratation of Characteristic and Prediction of the Shelf Life Using Moisture Critical Method]

Dorkas Sianipar1), Sugiono2), dan Rizal Syarief2)

1) Mahasiswa Program Studi Ilmu Pangan, FATETA-IPB Darmaga, PO Box 220 16002
2) Dosen Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, FATETA-IPB Darmaga, PO Box 220 16002

Diterima 9 Juli 2007 / Disetujui 22 Mei 2008

Binthe biluhuta is a native food of Gorontalo, made from mixture of corn, onion, leek, basil, desiccated coconut, chili and fish. The objective of this research was to find the best formulation for binthe biluhuta seasoning and prediction of it’s shelf life. Moisture sorption isotherm derived from the correlation of moisture content data indicated a typical sigmoidal curve implying 3 regions of water adsorption. The water sorption region accounted for three fraction of bound water analyzed using three different mathematical models. The first water fraction ranged 0-3. 148 (%db) and the third fraction ranged 13.438-52970 (%db). The binthe biluhuta seasoning packaged in alumina and stored at 80 and 90% RH, demonstrated the longest shelf life which were equal to 748 and 423 days, respectively.

Key word : Binthe biluhuta seasoning, water sorption isothermic, shelf life

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PENGARUH FRAKSI KARBOHIDRAT KACANG KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet) TERHADAP KOLESTEROL DAN MALONALDEHID SERUM TIKUS PERCOBAAN YANG DIBERI RANSUM TINGGI KOLESTEROL

The Effect of Carbohydrate Fractionof Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L). sweet) on the Blood Serum Cholesterol and Malonaldehyde of Rats Fed with High Cholesterol Diet]

Arif Hartoyo1), Dahrulsyah1), Nurheni Sripalupi, dan Purwono Nugroho2)

1) Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan. Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian. IPB
2) Program Sarjana. Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan. Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian. IPB

Diterima 12 Desember 2007 / Disetujui 10 Juni 2008

The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of carbohydrate fraction of hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet ) diet on lipid profile and peroxydation value of the blood serum and liver of rats. Fifteen male wistar strain rats were divided into three diet groups of live animals. The first group was positive control group with standard diet. The third group was given carbohydrate fraction of hyacinth bean and 1% pure cholesterol. The experiment was conducted for 75 days. The total cholesterol levels in positive, negative control, and that in the hyacinth treated group were 204.0, 74,8, and 99.8 mg/dl. The LDL levels in the control, negative control group, the hyacinth treated group were 153.0, 20.6 and 45.9 mg/dl. Triglyceride levels in the positive control, negative control, and the hyacinth treated group were 121.4, 137.7, and 114.8 mg/dl. The atherogenic index in the positive control, negative control, and the hyacinth treated group were 6.9, 1.9 and 2.5 point. The total cholesterol and LDL levels in positive control, negative control, and the hyacinth treated group underwent hypercholesterolemia effect. Malonaldehyde content of the blood serum in positive control, negative control, and the treated group were 0.54, 0.48, and 0.31 µmol/ml. Malonaldehyde content of liver organ in positive control group, negative control group, and the hyacinth treated group were 66.9, 36.4 and 73.4 nmol/g. Malonaldehyde content of blood serum in hyacinth treated group was significantly lower than that in the positive and negative control group. These result showed that the hyacinth group decreased free radical in the blood serum. On the other hand, the malonaldehyde content of the liver in all treatment showed no significant differences.

Keywords : Carbohydrate fraction, Hyacinth bean, Lipid profile, Peroxydation.

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DETEKSI MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS PADA SUSU FORMULA LANJUTAN DI BOGOR

[Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Formula Milk in Bogor]

Widagdo Sri Nugroho1,2) Minarwati Sudarwanto3), Denny Widaya Lukman3), dan Ewald Usleber4)

1) Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
2) Sekolah Pasca Sarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia
3) Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Institut Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia
4) Professur fur Milchwissenschaften Institut fur Tierarzliches Nahrungsmittelkunde der Justus-Liebig Universitat, Giessen, Germany.

Diterima 2 Januari 2008 / Disetujui 21 Mei 2008

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) becomes a public health concern in developed countries which is usually associated to Crohn’s disease (CD) in human. The disease shows similarities in clinical signs and pathology characteristic with John’s disease (JD) in ruminants which is infected by MAP. Researchers in Europe, USA, and Australia detected MAP in their dairy products and showed the relationship among MAP, CD, and JD. Meanwhile Indonesia imported milk and milk products from those countries to cover the national demand. This situation keeps MAP as potential-problem in national dairy herd and human health in the future. The aim of this study was to detect MAP in the formula milk for toddler. Fifty samples from five established milk producers were taken on August 2006 at the supermarket in Bogor. Two separate diagnostic methods were used parallel in this study i.e polymerase chain reaction method (PCR) with insertion sequence F 57 as the primer and the Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT). Neither MAP grew in MGIT after 20 weeks of incubation period but 5 samples were found positive by nested PCR. Although there was no evidence weather MAP grew from the samples, as well as in human to provide data on MAP in Indonesia.

Key words: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, growing up milk formula, PCR F57

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STUDI KEAMANAN DAN DAYA SIMPAN CABE MERAH GILING

[Study o Safety and Shelflife of Red Chili Paste]

Rosaria1) dan Winiati P. Rahayu2)

1) Alumni Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fateta-IPB. Bogor 2) Staf Pengajar Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fateta-IPB. Bogor

Diterima 27 Juli 2007 / Disetujui 22 Mei 2008

Red chili is an important food ingredient which may not be always self, when obtained from the market. The aims of the study was to evaluate the safety and shelf life of red chili paste. Based on survey conducted with 20 vendors in Bogor, we found red chili paste in generally composed of red chili, water, and NaCl. About 75% of the vendors claimed that their red chili paste not sold in the first market day is stored in a plastic container at room temperature and resold for the next day. They claimed that their red chili paste can be stored for 2-8 days. The red chili paste showed moisture content of 71.6-86.8% (w/wb), pH 4.7-6.9% (w/w). About 33.3% of them positively contained excessive amount of sodium benzoate and 36% of them contained Rhodamin B which is prohibited as food coloring. From the microbiological side, the red chili paste contained 9.5 x 10 3 – 3.8 x 105cfu/g mould and yeast; 1.2 x 103 – 5.6 x 104 cfu/f spore forming bacteria; 5.2 x 102- 1.2 x 104 cfu/g S. aureus;

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AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU ( Piper betle L ) TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGEN PANGAN

[Antibacterial Activity of Green Sirih (Piper betle L) Extract towards Food Pathogens]

Suliantri1), B. S.L. Jenie2), M.T. Suhartono2) dan A. Apryiantono2)

1) Mahasiswa Pasca Sarjana, IPB – Bogor 2) Staf Pengajar Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fateta – IPB. Bogor

Diterima 7 Februari 2007 / Disetujui 13 Juni 2008

Green sirih (Piper betle L) extract were prepared using water, athanol and ethyl acetate extractionof the dried material. The extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillius cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. At concentrations10-50% the extracts effectively inhibited the growth of all tested bacteria as shown by the clear zones which varied from 7 to 24 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) varied from 0.1 to 1 %. E. coli, S. Typhimumirum and S. aureus were more resistance to the green sirih extracts than other tested bacteria. The result showed that in general, ethanol extraction produced the best extract with strong antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus. Analysis of the extract components with GC-MS revealed that sirih extract contained phenol, chavicol, eugenol, caryophylene, cylene, chalarene and others.

Key words: Green Sirih (Piper betle L), bioactive compound, antibacterial.

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PELAPIS PANGAN ALAMI ASAL LAK : KONDISI SAAT INI DAN POTENSI PENGEMBANGAN DI PROPINSI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

Natural Food Coating from Lac : Present Conditions and Development Prospect in East Nusa Tenggara Province

Semuel Pakan

Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Nusa Cendana, Kupang.
Jln. Adisucipto, Penfui – Kupang (85001)

Diterima 14 Juli 2007/ Disetujui 15 Februari 2008

Lac is secreted by Laccifer lacca kern that has been widely used as food coating materials. To get the best food coatings from lac, the sticklac which processed need to be converted to seedlac and further become shellac. It is one of the potential commodities in East Nusa Tenggara Timur Province. However, more work has to be done for improving its productivity as well as its quality.

Key words : lac, Laccifer lacca kern, food coating.

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FUCOXANTHIN SEBAGAI ANTIOBESITAS

Fuconxanthin as Antiobesity

Agustina D. R. Nurcahyanti dan Kris H. Timotius

Magister Biologi, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Salatiga
Jl. Diponegoro 52-60 Salatiga 50711

Diterima 17 September 2007/ Disetujui 11 Februari 2008

Fucoxanthin is a member of pigment of xantophlly-carotenoid and a major pigment found in some brown algae. Studies about this pigment revealed the advantages of fucoxanthin as active biological component. One of them is a antiobesity activity. The mechanism of this activity was discribed as increasing UCP1 protein expression in white adipose tissue. increasing UCP1 protein expression associated with thermogenesis process which lead the releasing energy carries fatty acids to out of membrane and converted as converted as het. In addition, fucoxanthin can lead liver to produse DHA although the mechanism was not understood clearly. Antiobesity activity of fucoxanthin direct to create the new nTURl aupplement which low in side effects.

Key word : antiobesity, fucoxanthin, Uncoupling Protein (UCP)

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MEKANISME ANTIBAKTERI METABOLIT Lb. plantarum kik dan MONOASILGLISEROL MINYAK KELAPA TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGAN PANGAN

Mechanism at Antibacterial Activity of Lb. plantarum kik Metabolites and Monoacylglycerol Coconut Oil upon Pathogenic Bacteria

Asriani1), Betty Sri Laksmi2), Sedernawati2), dan Idwan Sudirman3)

1) Staf Pengajar Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Tadulako, Kmpus Kaktus Tondo, Palu
2) Staf Pengajar Jurusan TPG, FATETA-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor
3) Staf Pengajar Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor

Diterima 23 Juni2007/ Disetujui 18 November 2007

Antibacterial mechanism of mixture between metabolites Lb.plantarum klik and monoacylglycerol coconut oil was found through analysis of the MIC levels. The level of 1 and 2 MIC can increase the leakages of the gram positif bacterial sell (L.monocytogenes and B.cereus) and that of the gram negative bacteria (S.typhimurium). The leackages of cell was measured by spectrofotometer and represented increasing of the absorbance of the protein nucleic acid . The absorbance of metal ion was evaluated using a AASS (measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer) and it indicated that the absorbance increased of 40.2% and 22.1% for Ca 2+ and K+ respectively. Observation of cell damage on L. monoctogenes and S. tyhimurium using SEM (scanning Electron Microscopy) resulted in morphological damage on both MIC 1 and 2 in which MIC 2 was severly damage.

Key word : antibacterial mechanism, monoacylglycerol coconut oil, minimum inhibitory concentration

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ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GINGER (Zingiber officinale) OLEORESIN ON THE PROFILE OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD) IN THE KIDNEY OF RATS UNDER STRESS CONDITION

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Tutik Wresdiyati1), Made Astawan2), Deddy Muchtadi2), and Yana Nurdiana2)

1) Department of Anatomy, and Pharmacology, Faculty of Vaterinary Medicine – IPB
1) Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology – IPB
Bogor Agricultural University, Jalan Agatis – IPB Darmaga Bogor 16680, INDONESIA.

Diterima 11 Juli 2007/ Disetujui 18 Februari 2008

Stress condition has beeb reported to decrease intracellular antioxidant-superoxide dismutase(SOD) in the liver and kidneyof rats. This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activies of ginger oleoresin on the profile of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in the kidney of rats under stress condition. The stress condition was achieved by five days of fasting together with swimming for 5 min/day. Ginger oleoresin was orally administrated in a dose of 60 mg/KgBW/day for seven days. Drinking water was provided ad libitum to all groups. The treatment of ginger oleoresin significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased SOD activity, as well as immunohistochemicall, increased the content of copper, zinc-SOD (Cu, Zn-SOD) in the kidney tissues compared to that of untreated group. The antioxidant content in ginger oleoresin such as shogaol, zingeron, and gingerol, etc. were shownto have activities in the kidney tissues of rats under stress condition that is increasunf the profile of SOD. Ginger oleoresin treatment in combination both before and after stress gave the best result.

Key words : antioxidant, ginger oleoresin, kidney, stress, superoxide dismutase (SOD)

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PENGARUH UKURAN PARTIKEL, KADAR PADATAN, NaCl dan Na2CO3 TERHADAP SIFAT AMILOGRAFI TEPUNG DAN PATI JAGUNG

The Effect of Particle Size, Solid Content, NaCl and Na2CO3 on The Amilographic Characteristics of Corn Flour and Corn Starch

Tjahja Muhandri

Staf Pengajar FATETA-IPB Bogor

Diterima 23 Agustus 2007/ Disetujui 11 November 2007

The ojective of this research was to investigate the effect of corn flour particle sizes (60, 80 and 100 mesh), solid content (40, 45, 50 and 55 gr sample), NaCl (1, 2, 3, and 4% w/w) and Na2CO3 (0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2%, w/w) on the amilography properties of the corn flour and corn starch revealed. Which were characterised by using Brabender Amilograph. The study that initial temperature of gelatization, maximum temperature of gelatinization and maximum viscosity increased with the increased of particle sizess. In most cases, each increment of 1 gram solid content could increase maximum viscosity about 57 BU and 49 BU for corn flour and corn starch, respectivevely . More over, addition of Na2CO3 and NaCl upon corn flour could increase the initial temperature of geletinization, maximum temperature of geletinization, maximum viscosity and cold viscosity. In the case of corn starch, addition of Na2CO3 had no significant effect on initial temperature of gelatinization. Whereas this treatment could decrease the maximum temperature of gelatinization and increase maximum viscosity at low concentrations ( 2CO3 at least 0.1% (w/w). Furthermore, the addition of NaCl had no significant effect on amylography properties of corn starch at the experimental a mount added.

Key word : Amylography properties, corn starch, corn flour

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PENGARUH PENUTUPAN DENGAN KAIN HITAM DAN KONSENTRASI ETANOL
TERHADAP KANDUNGAN KURKUMINOID DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK SIMPLISIA TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorrhiza)

The Effect of the Covering with Black Cloth and Ethanol Concentration on the Curcuminoid Contents
and Antioksidant Activity of Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) Chip Extracts

Sri Anggrahini 1), Raden Rara Safitriani 2) dan Umar Santosa 1)

1) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta
1) Dinas Pertanian dan Kelautan, Kulonprogo, Yogyakarta

Diterima 24 Juli 2007/ Disetujui 29 Agustus 2007

The aim of this research was to find out the curcuminoid content and antioxidant activity of temulawak (Curcuma xanthorriza) chip extracts under specific treatment. This research was started with preparation of temulawak chips. Which were made from 2 treatment of sun drying, those which were convered with black cloth and those without cover. The quantity of three types of know curcuminoids of temulawak chips were analyzed by HPCL after axtraction with 0%, 5% and 95% etanol solvent. Antioxidant activities in the extracts were measured by ferri thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid methods. The result indicated that drying with black cloth cover showed higher curcuminoid content and antioxidant activity compared with those without black cloth cover, but drying with black cloth cover had no effect on the type of curcuminoids. The antioxidant activity of temulawak chip was highest with the type of curcuminoids being bisdemetoxicurcumine, demetoxicurcumine and curcumine when the temulawak chips were extracted with 95% ethanol. While the type of curcuminoids were only demetoxicurcumine and curcumine, when temulawak chips were extracted with 0% and 50% ethanol.

Key words : Temulawak chips, curcuminoid, ethanol, antioxidant activity.

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LOGIKA FUZZY DAN JARINGAN SYARAT TIRUAN UNTUK
PENINGKATAN MUTU TEH HITAM

Fuzzy Logic an Artificial Neural Network for Quality Improvement of Black Tea

Rohmatulloh 1), dan Marimin2)

1)Jurusan Teknik Industri Politeknik Swadharma, Jakarta
2)Departemen Teknologi Industri Pertanian Sekolah Pascasarjana IPB, Bogor
Email : emanasi@plasa.com, marimin@indo.net.id

Diterima 23 maret 2007/ Disetujui 17 Desember 2007

This paper discussed quality improvement of black tea using fuzzy approach on quality functions deployment and the development of backpropagation neural the software NWP II plus. The research was conducted at PTPN VIII tea industry, Goalpara plantation. Result of the study showed that, parameter first priority based on customer evaluation was tea flavour. The Important process parameter of black tea based on result of fuzzy relationship matrix was the withering process. Based on the test of “trial and error� of network training process, the best network architecture for withering process monitoring [3-15-1] was obtained, that is 3 neurons in input layer, 15 neurons in hidden layer and 1 neuron in output layer. Three inputs and output consist of time, flow, temperature and moisture content. The result sugges that development of backpropagation neural network can be used for process evaluation of withering processes.

Key words : black tea, fuzzy matrix, and backpropagation neural network.

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UJI SIFAT PROBIOTIK BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT
SEBAGAI KANDIDAT BAHAN PANGAN FUNGSIONAL

Probiotic Characteristics of laactic acid Bacteria as Candidate for Functional Food

Ida Susanti, Retno W. Kusumaningtyas, dan Fatim Illaningtyas

Pusat Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi Bioindustri – BPPT
Jl. MH Thamrin 8 Jakarta 10340

Diterima 16 Juli 2007/ Disetujui 8 November 2007

Lactic acid bacteria have been reported to be useful as a healt adjunct and are commonly added to food as delivery mechanism. As a probiotic, lactic acid bacteria should have the ability to survive in the digestion process such as resistance towards acidic pH, varieties of bile salt concentrations and enteric pathogan. In this study, lactic acid bacteria were isolated from various sources. Twenty isolated of lactic acid bacteria selected for their resistancy toeards acidic pH (pH 2.5), 0.3% bile salt and their antagonistic activity against enteric pathogan (Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus). The result showed that most of all strauns had good resistance to acidic pH and there were no significant difference among theme (p>0.05). More over, all strains showed tolerance to 0,3% bile salt concentration (varietis among isolates were significant p>0.05). All strains showed inhibition activity against enteric pathogan bacteria, this was estimated from the size of the diameter of the inhibition zones. (The inhibition were significantly different among them (p>0,05)). The best five stains that fulfilled these properties L casei FNCC262, L. acidophilus FNCC116, KL-3 isolate, Da-1 isolate, and Db-2 isolate. These strains could be used as probiotics in further and applications.

Key words : acid-tolerant, bile tolerant, antagonistic activity, lactic acid bacteria

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KARAKTERISASI ENZIM B-GLUKOSIDASE VANILI

Characterization of B-glukosidase Enzyme from Vanilla Bean

Dwi setyaningsih 1), Maggy T. Soehartono 2), Anton Apriyantono 2), dan Ika Mariska3)

1)Departemen Teknologi Industri Pertanian, FATETA-IPB
2)Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan FATETA-IPB
3)Balai Penelitian Biologi dan Sumber Daya Genetika Tanaman, Cimanggu, Bogor

Diterima 2 Februari 2007/ Disetujui 13 Desember 2007

The Indonesian natural vanilla is know for having a unigue woody, smooky, and phenolic flavor. Development of the aroma and flavor vanilla was formed by the action of a hydrolytic enzyme B-glucosidase on glucovanillin. The objective of this research was to characterize vanilla B-glucosidase. The vanilla B-glucosidase activity was increased by detergent. The enzyme was found as heat labile. Scalding should be conducted at 400C for 2-3 minutes. The result from B-glucosidase activity in each part of vanilla and microscopic analisis of vanilla bean slice showed that the highest B-glucosidase activity and vanillin concentrations were found in the seed funicles and placental tissue the of vanilla bean. The activity of vanilla B-glucosidase was optimum at pH 6,0, and temperature of 400C, found as and activation energy was 5,78 kcal/mole. After 44 minutes incubation time at 400C. The activity was reduced down to 10%. The apparent of moleculer weight was 100-400 kDa according to gel setration (Sephacryl S-300) analysis.

Key words : Vanilla planifolia, B-glucosidase

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PENAMBAHAN KACANG-KACANGAN DALAM FORMULASI MAKANAN PENDAMPING AIR SUSU IBU (MP-ASI) BERBAHAN DASAR PATI AREN(Arenga Pinnata (Wurmb) Merr)

Addition of legumes in the Formulation of Supplementary Food Based on Palm Starch (Arenga Pinnata (Wurmb) Merr)

Aryani Kusumaningrum1) dan Winiarti P. Rahayu2)

1)Alumni Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, FATETA-IPB 2)Staf Pengajar Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, FATETA-IPB

Diterima 14 Mei 2007/ Disetujui 27 November 2007

Food diversification is one of the governmental programs to reduce rice demand. Palm starch (Arenga Pinnata (Wurmb) Merr) has a good potency as carbohydrate source for supplementary food.
Supplementary food from palm starch enriched with 4 legumes (red bean, green bean, soy bean, and paenut)as sourch of protein were formulated. This weaning food was made by wet mixing all substances, then cooked at temperatur 750C for 10 minutes. The dough was then dried using drum dryer and milled. The flour was fortified by vitamin premix (vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin C), mineral premix (Na, Zn, Fe, Ca, and I) and vanilla flavor (0,05; 0,10; 0,15; 0,20; and 0,25%) to improve their nutritional and sensory qualities.
Result obtained from hedonic tes indicated that soy bean is the most suitable bean 0,05 percent of vanilla flavor gave the best formula. Supplementary food from sugar palm starch contained 170 kkal energy, 4 g protein, 33g carbohydrate and 3 g fat per serving (42 g). If the formula was consumed three times per day it will fulfill 60 percent of AKG (Angka Kecukupan Gizi(Nutritional Daily Requirement)) of the baby and child’s protein. The protein digest of such supplementary food from sugar palm starch was 86,29 percent of casein and comply this with SNI 01-7111.4 -2005 and codex (1976) standard.

Key words : Palm starch, legumes, weaning food

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SIFAT FISIKO-KIMIA BERAS DAN INDEKS GLIKEMIKNYA

[Physico-Chemical Properties Of Rice And Its Glycemic Index]

E.Y. Purwani 1), S. Yuliani1), S.D. Indrasari 2), S.Nugraha1) dan R. Thahir 1)

1) Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan PascaPanen Pertanian Jl. Tentata Pelajar No. 12. Bogor 2)Balai Besar Penelitian Padi Jl. Raya IX Sukamandi, Subang

Diterima 20 Januari 2007 / Disetujui 31 Juli 2007

In the present study, several different rice were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and glycemic index. They were IR 36, Batang Piaman, Mekongga, X rice (unidentified varieties), Taj Mahal, parboiled rice of Batang Piaman and X rice. IR 36 Batang Piaman and x rice showed comparable milling quality. Parboiling process increased milling quality of rice. Batang Piaman and Taj Mahal were classified as high amylase, while Mekongga and X rice were classified as medium amylase. Parboiling process changed the pasting properties of rice from the initial type B (for IR 36 and Mekongga) and type C (for Batang Piaman, and X rice) to type D. IR 36 and Taj Mahal showed low and medium glycemic index (Gl), respectively. Varied responses were observed with glycemic index (Gl) of rice due to parboiling process. Parboiling decreased the Gl of Batang Piaman from 86 to 59. however, similar response was not observed on the other rice. The result, emphasized that it is possible to find out the naturally domestic rice with low Gl.

Key Words: rice, glycemic index, diabetes mellitus

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SIFAT FISIKO-KIMIA BERAS DAN INDEKS GLIKEMIKNYA

[Physico-Chemical Properties Of Rice And Its Glycemic Index]

E.Y. Purwani 1), S. Yuliani1), S.D. Indrasari 2), S.Nugraha1) dan R. Thahir 1)

1) Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan PascaPanen Pertanian Jl. Tentata Pelajar No. 12. Bogor 2)Balai Besar Penelitian Padi Jl. Raya IX Sukamandi, Subang

Diterima 20 Januari 2007 / Disetujui 31 Juli 2007

In the present study, several different rice were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and glycemic index. They were IR 36, Batang Piaman, Mekongga, X rice (unidentified varieties), Taj Mahal, parboiled rice of Batang Piaman and X rice. IR 36 Batang Piaman and x rice showed comparable milling quality. Parboiling process increased milling quality of rice. Batang Piaman and Taj Mahal were classified as high amylase, while Mekongga and X rice were classified as medium amylase. Parboiling process changed the pasting properties of rice from the initial type B (for IR 36 and Mekongga) and type C (for Batang Piaman, and X rice) to type D. IR 36 and Taj Mahal showed low and medium glycemic index (Gl), respectively. Varied responses were observed with glycemic index (Gl) of rice due to parboiling process. Parboiling decreased the Gl of Batang Piaman from 86 to 59. however, similar response was not observed on the other rice. The result, emphasized that it is possible to find out the naturally domestic rice with low Gl.

Key Words: rice, glycemic index, diabetes mellitus

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STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF DRYING MODES ON QUALITY OF DEHYDRATED CABBAGE

-

Sakhale, B.K. and Pawar, V.N.

University department of chemical technology, Dr. Babashep ambedkar marathwada University, Aurangabad – 431004 and marathwada agriculture University, parbhani maharashtra, India Email: bksakhale@gmail.com fax no. 0240-2400413

Accepted 24 juli 2006 / confirm to publish 29 agustus 2007

An investigation was carried out for justify the suitability of various dehydration techniques for desired quality of finished products. The cabbage (brassica oleracea L. Var. Capitata), one of the commonly consumed green leafy vegetables was assessed fot its commercial processing potential through dehydration technology. The fresh cabbage procured from commercial growing farms near aurangabad city were washed, chopped into strips of uniform size and subjected to hot water blanching containing 2.0 percent common salt. The pretreated cabbage were dehydrated under different during conditions i.e. sun, shade and tray drying to safe moisture level. The dried sample were evaluated for their dehydration process features, nutritional and sensorial characteristics. The data on the dehydration technology revealed that tray dried cabbage found comparatively more wholesome, palatable and reported maximum retention of nutrients like vitamin C (42.9%), calcium (87.2%), iron (83.3%) coupled with superior dehydration and rehydration ratios and processing characteristics. The tray dried cabbage method was found comparatively superior in retention of sensorial quality features (appearance, color and overall acceptability) over sun drying and at par with shade drying.

Key words: cabbage; dehydration ;pretreatment ;rehydration ;sensorial quality

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KAJIAN SIFAT AKUSTIK BUAH MANGGIS(Gracinia mangostana L) DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN GELOMBANG ULTRASONIK

[Acoustic Study Of Mangosteene (Gracinia mangostana L) By Using Ultrasonic Wave]

Jajang juansah 1), I wayan Budiastra2), dan suroso 3)

1)Departemen Fisika FMIPA IPB 2)Departemen Ilmu Keteknikan Pertanian FATETA IPB

Diterima 17 November 2006 / disetujui 27 Agustus 2007

The wave used to study the acoustic properties of mangosteen is ultrasonic wave. Ultrasonic wave with frequency of 50 KHz was used to determine acoustic properties of mangosteen. The main wave properties were the attenuation, impedance of acoustic and acoustic velocity at mangosteen. Others have been evaluated were the correlation of attenuation and acoustic velocity at parts of mangosteen with its intact mangosteen. The acoustic parameters were related to the physic-chemical parameters of the fruit (TDS and hardness). This relationship was used to study mangosteen properties and quality. Because of mangosteen structure and it’s pores (saw with low density), acoustic wave in manggosteen have low amplitude signal. It was saw with spectrum and FFT signal mangosteen and reference medium / air (1.4:2.3).
The fruit with increasing maturity mount (from color index 2 to 5) will experience hardness degradation, improvement of TDS, which are related to degradation of acoustic attenuation, improvement of acoustic speed and impedance. Multiple regression method was used to get empiric equation of wave in mixture of flesh-seed, husk and mangosteen (parts of mangosteen with its intact mangosteen). That saw in equation 1 and 2. the velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic wave in mixture of flesh – seed have higher effect equation on mangosteen than husk. It means that acoustic properties of mixture of flesh – seed has more contribution than husk.

Key word: attenuation, velocity, impedance, ultrasonic, mangosteen

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PRODUK EKSTRUSI BERBASIS TEPUNG UBI JALAR

[Extrusion product made from sweet potato]

Umar Santoso1), Triastati Murdaningsih2) dan Rob Mudjisihono3)

1)Pengajar Pada Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281 2)Alumnus Facultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281 3)Peneliti Senior(APU) Pada Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (BPTP) Badan Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Yogyakrta 55010

Diterima 20 Januari 2007 / disetujui 31 Juli 2007-12-03

The objective of the research was to develop a method to prepare extruted product from sweet potato and rice flour with addition of karabenguk as the protein source. The ratio of sweet potato and rice flour were 90:10; 75:25; and 55:45, and the addition of korobenguk flour varied from 0.5;1.0to 1.5 % (on the mixture basis). The first step was to determine the optimum condition for extrusion process. The extruded product was evaluated for its chemical, physical, and sensory properties. The results showed that the extruded products can be produced from sweet potato and rice flour in all ratios experimented. The addition of korobenguk flour appeared to increase protein, fat, and ash contents but decrease the extension degree the extension degree, crispness, and water absorption index. Based on the sensory evaluation, the most preferred product was that prepared from 55% sweet potato flour, 45% rice flour, and addition of 0.5% korobenguk flour (on the basis of the dough) with moisture content of 15 %.

Key words: sweet potato, extrusion product, korobenguk

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KARAKTERISASI TEPUNG UBI JALAR (Ipomoea batata L.) VARIETAS SHIROYUTAKA SERTA KAJIAN POTENSI PENGGUNAANNYA SEBAGAI SUMBER PANGAN KARBOHIDRAT ALTERNATIF

[Characterization of Sweet Potato Flour (Ipomea batatas L.) var. Shiroyutaka and Assesment of the potential as Alternative Carbohydrate Source For Food Product]

Beni Hidayat 1), Adil Basuki Ahza 2) dan sugiyono3)

1) Staf Pengajar Program Studi Teknologi Pangan, Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian, Politeknik Negeri Lampung 2) Staf Pengajar Departemen Ilmu Dan Teknologi Pangan Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Diterima 26 April 2007 / disetujui 19 Juli 2007

This research was aimed to characterize sweet potato flour var. shiroyutaka and assessment of its potential as alternative carbohydrate source on food product. Characterization was conducted on flour processed from sweet potato var. shiroyutaka harvested at four months was characteristic, these included whiteness degree and water absorption of the flour, ratio of amylase-amylopectin, form and size of starch granule, and starch digestibility.
The research showed that whiteness degree and water absorption of the flour were 78,82% ( 0,52) and 1,25 g/g ( 0,12) respectively. The ratio of amylase-amylopectin, gelatinization temperature, maximum viscosity and invitro starch digest ability were 69.82%: 30.18%, 78-900C and 84,78% respectively. The granule of its starch was round form and with size 2-4 micron.
The main potential of the flour is related with its specific characteristics which were the amylose-amylopectin ratio, the starch amylograph profile, form and size of starch granule, and the starch digest ability. These parameters implied that, the flour should be utilized in the production specific food products.

Key words : sweet potato flour, amylose, gelatinization, digest ability, water absorption

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EKSTRAKSI PEWARNA ALAMI DARI BUAH ARBEN (Rubus idaeus Linn.)

[Extraction of Natural Colorant from Red Raspberry (rubus idaeus linn.) And its application in food sistem]

Tensiska, Een Sukarmina1)dan Dita Natalia2)

1) Staf Pengajar pada Jurusan Teknologi Industri Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Industri Pertanian UNPAD 2)Alumni Program Studi Teknologi Pangan, Facultas Pertanian UNPAD

Diterima 12 Januari 2007 / Disetujui 19 Juli 2007

Red raspberry fruit has not been optimally utilized even though it contains anthocyanin pigment. The pigment can be used as a natural colorant which also function as antioxidant. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate solvent for anthocyanin extraction from red raspberry fruit and its possibility for food colorant. The research was started with preliminary research to determine appropriate acidulants (citric, acetic and tartaric acid) with levels of 0,1 ;0,25;0,5 ;0,75 and 1 %. The main research was divided into three stages, which were: (1) to determine the appropriate solvent of extraction (aquadest, ethanol and etil acetate); (2) the best extract was determined its color stability in pH of 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and (3) to examine the pigment solubility into some food system (aqua96%dest, 25% of acetic acid, 96% of ethanol and coconut oil). The best extract also was examined its solubility in carbonated drink (pH of 3.69), pasteurized milk (pH of 6.49) and yogurt (pH of 2.6). the results showed that the extraction using aquadest with 0.75% of tartaric acid resulted in the highest total anthocyanin and showed the best color intensity. This extract was stable at pH of 2-5 and its solubility was best in aquaeous system with low pHs, thus it can be applied for aqueous product with low pHs.

Key words : red raspberry fruit, anthocyanin, food colorant, aquadest, pHs

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AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK DAUN SALAM (Syzgium Polyanta) DAN DAUN PANDAN (Pandanus Amaryllifolius)

[Antibacterial Activity Of (Syzygium Polyanta And Amaryllifolius) Leaf Extracts]

Murhadi, Suharyono AS, Dan Susilawati

Staf Pengajar Pada Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian Universitas Lampung (Unila) Bandar Lampung

Diterima 15 Maret 2007 / Disetujui 19 Juli 2007

The objectives of this research were to study antibacterial activities of syzgium polyanta (“Salamâ€Â�) and Pandanus amaryllifolius (“Pandanâ€Â�) leaf extracts and the effect of wet heating (1000, up to 60 min) on their antibacterial activities against staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtillis, pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Salam and pandan leaves powder was extracted using hot water (700C, 2 h), ethanol, ethanol/ethylacetate (1:1, v/v), and ethlacetate bt soxhlet (3×8 h) separately. Each residue was further extracted using the same solvent by shaker (250 rpm, 24 h). finally filtrates were mixed and evaporated to produce the extract. Salam leaf ethanol extract (yield 11.50%) showed highest antibacterial activity especially towards P. aeruginosa (diameter of inhibitor 6.5 mm/mg) and B. subtilis (6.3 mm/mg). Pandan leaf erhanol/ethylacetate extract (yield 15.61 %) also showed antibacterial activity towards P. aeruginosa (4.25 mm/mg) and B. subtilis (3.2 mm/mg). In general, salam leaf extracts showed higher antibacterial activity than pandan leaf extracts. Pandan and salam leaf water extracts had no antibacterial activity. Escerichia coli was more resistant to the extracts compared Staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial activity of salam leaf ethylacetate extract decreased 6.55%, lower than that of pandan leaf ethylacetate extract (18.48%) after heating 1000C for 10up to 60 min.

Key words : salam, pandan, antibacterial activity.

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EVALUASI EFEK LAKSATIF DAN FERMENTABILITAS KOMPONEN PEMBENTUK GEL DAUN CINCAU HIJAU (Premna oblongifolia Merr.)

[Evaluation of Laxatife ffect and Fermentabilitiy of Gel Forming Component ofGreen cingcau Leaves(Premna oblongifolia Merr.)]

Samsu Udayana Nurdin

1)Departement of Agric. Product Tech., Lampung University Jln. Sumantri Brojonegoro, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia 62-35145, Phone 62-721-781823, Email: ironyana@yahoo.com.

Diterima 20 November 2006 / Disetujui 14 agustus 2007

The major effects of dietary fibre occur in the colon. Each type of dietary fibre interacts with the microflora, and the colonic mucosa and muscle to produce several possible effects. The action of an individual fibre source depends to a large extent on its fermentability. The least fermentable dietary fibres are in general having the greatest effects on stool output. Previous research showed that Gel Forming Component (GFC) of green cingcau leaves (Premna oblongifolia Merr.) had high fermentability in vitro. Therefore, in this research, we evaluated its effecton stool output and viable cells number of lactic acid bacteria in the diegesta of rats fed with diet containing GFC. Fifteen of 3 months-old Sparague-Dawle (c)and (3) Rats fed with diet containing iulin (l). The results showed that stool output of G was higher than l, but lower than C (6.30, 4.61, 7.21%, (respectively). feces consistency of G was softer than l, but harder than C. Number of viable cells of latic acid bacteria in the diegesta of G, I, and C were 12.85, 11.97 and 11.14 log of viable cells numbe/g digesta, respectively. These data suggest that GFC of green cingcau leaves had moderate laxative effect and fermentability.

Key words: cingcau, fermentability, laxative, dietary fibre.

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PURIFIKASI DAN KARAKTERISASI PARSIAL ENZIM PROTEASE DARI GETAH TANAMAN BIDURI (Calotropis gigantea)

[Purification and Partial Characterization of Protease from Biduri (Calotropis gigantea) Latex]

Yuli Witono1), Aulanni’am2, Achmad Subagio1), dan Simon Bambang Widjanarko3)

1) Staf Pengajar Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Jember 2) Staf Pengajar Fakultas MIPA Universitas Brawijaya Malang 3) Staf Pengajar Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya Malang

Diterima 19 Oktober 2006/ Disetujui 11 Juni 2007

The main objectives of this research we to purify protease from biduri (Calotropis gigantean) latex and its partial characterization in relation with this application in the food processing. Protease was extracted from biduri latex by using ammonium sulphate 35-80%, dialyzed and then purified subsequently through sephadex G-25 gel and CM sephadex C-50 caution exchanger. Biduri protease has specific activity of 59 unit/g in casein substrate. Optimum pH was 7 and temperature 550C. Apparent Km was 21.63 g/ml and reaction maximum velocity (Vmax) being 18.9 mg/ml/min. SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) analysis showed the apparent molecular weight of the protease was 25.2 kD. Moreover, the protease can be inactivated at 900C for 10 min, or 600C for 30 min.

Key Word : biduri (Calotropis gigantea), protease, purification, characterization.

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PENGHAMBATAN OKSIDASI LDL DAN AKUMULASI KOLESTEROL PADA MAKROFAG OLEH EKSTRAK TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb)

[The Inhibition of Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Cholesterol Accumulation on the Macrophage by Temulawak Extract]

Aisyah Tri 1), Hidayah Dwiyanti1), Deddy Muchtadi2), dan Fransiska Zakaria2)

1)Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, UNSOED Purwokerto 2)Program Studi Ilmu Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, IPB Bogor

Diterima 15 Desember 2006 / Disetujui 10 Mei 2007

Coronary heart disease is caused among others by atherosclerosis, which is the result of oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol accumulation on the macrophage. This were reported to be inhibited by temulawak (Curcuma xanthorizza Roxb). The objective of this study was to find out the types and consentrations of temulawak extract which could inhibit LDL oxidation, and to find out the effect of temulawak extract on the accumulation of cholesterol on macrophage. Temulawak was extracted by water, ethanol, aceton and dichlorometane. Inhibition of LDL oxidation was analyzed by measuring the level of malonaldehyde content of the oxidized LDL-CuSO4 which were given water extract, ethanol extract, aceton extract and dichlorometane extract. of temulawak at concentrations of 43 ?g, 430 ?g, and 4300 ?g per ml of LDL. The percentage of malonaldehyde reduction due to addition of water, ethanol, acetone and dichloromethane extract were 44.27; 47.68; 51.83 and 61.2 respectively. The inhibition of LDL oxidation by temulawak extract depends on the concentrations. The percentage of malonaldehyde reduction due to addition of temulawak extract of 43 µg, 430 µg, and 4300 µg per ml of LDL were 43.63; 56.72; and 53.89 Concentrations of temulawak extract resulting in the highest inhibition of LDL oxidation was 430 µg/ml LDL. Temulawak extract tends to inhibit cholesterol accumulation on the macrophage. There is a correlation between the inhibition of cholesterol accumulation on the macrophage and the inhibition of LDL oxidation by temulawak extract.

Key words : Low density lipoprotein, macrophage, cholesterol, temulawak (Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb)

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PENGARUH SODIUM CHLORIDE TERHADAP SIFAT TERMAL PROTEIN 30 kDa YANG DIISOLASI DARI BIJI MELINJO

[Effect of Sodium Chloride on Thermal Properties of 30 kDa Protein Isolated from Melinjo Seed]

Tri Agus SISWOYO

Pusat Penelitian Biologi Molekul dan Jurusan Agronomi, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Jember

Diterima 20 Oktober 2006 / Disetujui 25 Mei 2007

The thermal properties of melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) protein were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The melinjo protein obtained from crude seed protein was isolated using isoelectric precipitation method. The molecular weight of the protein isolate about 30 kDa as estimated using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The thermogram of MSPI showed a major endothermic peak at 84.10C and a minor transition at 109.50C with enthalpy value of 0.52 and 0.32 J/g, respectively. The progressive increasing in major endothermic peak with increase in NaCl concentrations, which suggested a more compact conformation of MSPI with higher thermal stability. Treatment by heating the sample at 800C for 5 min caused reduction of enthalpy value, indicated that MSPI denaturation occurred. In contrast, after MSPI combined with NaCl, the enthalpy value was increased, which showed that the of MSPI was more heat stable.

Key words: Melinjo, protein isolated, thermal, NaCl, enthalpy

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ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI MELANOIDIN KECAP MANIS DAN PERANANNYA SEBAGAI ANTIOKSIDAN

[Isolation and Characterization of Soy Sauce Melanoidin and its Role as Antioxidant]

Dedin FR1), Dedi Fardiaz2), Anton Apriyantono2), Nuri Andarwulan1)

1)Mahasiswa program studi Ilmu Pangan PPs-IPB 2)Staf pengajar Fateta IPB

Diterima 10 November 2006 / Disetujui 23 Mei 2007

Controlling oxidation in natural and processed foods is a difficult aspect of food preservation, even in low-fat foods. Lipid oxidation not only produces undesirable characteristic such as odors and flavor, but also decreases the nutritional quality and safety of foods by formation of secondary reaction products during cooking and processing. Protection of foods against lipid oxidation usually involves exclusion of oxygen by packing in vacuum or inert gases and/or the addition of antioxidants.
The Maillard reaction is a complex reaction. A variety of by products, intermediates and brown pigmens (melanoidins) are produced, which may contribute to the flavor, antioxidative activity and color of food. The oxidative browning of soy sauce is considered to have a different mechanism from those of ascorbic acid, polyphenols and furfural, because the amount of these compounds in soy sauce is very small.
Maillard reaction products of soy sauce were fractionated into high and low molecular weight compounds by ultrafiltration. Oxidative stability was evaluated in refined soybean oil containing compounds in soy sauce and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Oils were oxidized at 1100C and analyzed by the rancimat method and TBA determination. The high molecular compounds (MW ?100 kDa) of soy sauce was found to be more inhibitory on the oxidation of soybean oil with protective index being 2.43. Characteristic of the UV-Vis absorption was 360 – 406 nm and the IR spectra indicated the presence of –OH…O groups of ?-diketon or combinated C=====================================================================R=====================================================================R groups.

Key words : Antioxidative activity, fractionation, melanoidin, Maillard reactions

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PENGARUH pH, NaCl DAN PEMANASAN TERHADAP STABILITAS ANTIBAKTERI BUNGA KECOMBRANG DAN APLIKASINYA PADA DAGING SAPI GILING

[Effects of pH, Nacl and Teating on the Antibacterial Stability of Kecombrang

Rifda Naufalin1), Betty Sri Laksmi Jenie2), Feri Kusnandar3), Mirnawati Sudarwanto4), dan Herastuti Sri Rukmini5)

1)Staf Pengajar Fakultas Pertanian UNSOED, 2)Guru Besar Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian IPB 3)Staf Pengajar Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian IPB, 4Guru Besar Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan IPB 5)Guru Besar Fakultas Pertanian UNSOED

Diterima 10 Desember 2006 / Disetujui 14 Mei 2007

The effect of pH (4-9), NaCl concentration (1-5%), temperature and heating time (80, 100 and 1210C for 10, 20 and 30 minute) on the antibacterial effectivity of ethyl acetate and ethanol kecombrang extract were analysed. Both ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed antibacterial activity at pH 4-8, but its activity gradually decreased at higher pH. At pH 9, only ethanol extract still showed antibacterial activity. Addition of 1-4% NaCl on ethyl acetate and ethanol extract still showed antibacterial activity. Heating the extracts at 80-100 0C for 10-30 minutes and 1210C for 10 minutes did not haves significantly affect on the antibacterial activity of both ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts. Application of ethyl acetate extract at the concentration of 1 and 3 MIC on minced meat were still effective to reduce the viable bacteria until 7 days and 5 MIC was still effective until 9 days.

Key words : Kecombrang, pH, NaCl, temperature and heating time, antibacteria

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PENGARUH METODE PEMBEKUAN DAN PENGERINGAN TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK GRITS JAGUNG INSTAN

[Effects of Freezing and Drying Methods on the Characteristics of Instant Corn Grits]

Hernawaty Husain1), Tien R Muchtadi1), Sugiyono1), dan Bambang Haryanto2)

1)Program Studi Ilmu Pangan, Sekolah Pascasarjana IPB, Bogor. 2)Pusat Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi Agroindustri, BPPT, Jakarta

Diterima 13 November 2006 / Disetujui 7 Mei 2007

Bassang is a traditional food of Makassar mainly made of corn grits. The food takes about 23 hours of traditional preparation. This lengthy process leads to a need for a technological innovation for a quicker preparation. In this study corn kernels were ground into grits. The corn grits were then gelatinized, frozen and dried using cabinet, fluidized bed, oven, and vacuum dryers. Soaking of kernels in 1% sodium citric followed by slow freezing yielded better results compared to soaking in calcium chloride followed by steaming and quick freezing. Oven drying yielded better results compared to cabinet, vacuum and fluidized bed drying, in relation to the porous characteristics and rehidration time. Instant corn grits can be cooked for 7 minutes.

Key words : corn, bassang, drying, instant.

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MEKANISME DAN KINETIKA ANTIFOTOOKSIDASI BIKSIN PADA SISTEM METIL LINOLEAT

[Mechanism and Kinetic of Antiphotooxidation of Bixin in Metil Linoleat System]

Ardiyanto Pranata1), Umar Santoso2), Sri Raharjo2), dan Haryadi2)

1)Mahasiswa S3 Ilmu Pangan 2)Dosen Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.

Diterima September 2006/ Disetujui 25 Mei 2007

Bixin belongs to the carotenoid group, present in Bixa orellana tree. It has conjugated double bonds which plays a role as an antiphotooxidant. The objectives of this study were to analyze the quenching mechanisms and kinetics of bixin in photosensitized oxidation of methyl linoleate. The quenching mechanism and kinetic of bixin were studied by the steady-state kinetic method. Samples of 0, 0.25 x 10-5, 0.5 x 10-5, 0.75 x 10-5, 1.0 x 10-5, 2.0 x 10-5 and 3.0 x 10-5 M bixin were prepared in ethanol that also contained 0.03, 0.06, 0.09 and 0.12 M methyl linoleate and 11.36 x 10-6 M of erythrosine stored under fluorescent light (4000 lux) at room temperature for 2 hours. The extent of photosensitized oxidation of methyl linoleate was expressed as peroxide value. The steady-state kinetic study indicated that bixin quenched singlet oxygen and exhibited triplet sensitizer quenching mechanism (to minimize the erythrosine photosensitized oxidation of methyl linoleate). The total quenching rate constant of bixin was 7.7 x 109 M-1S-1.

Key words: bixin, quencher, erythrosine, singlet oxygen

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AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK POLIFENOL KASAR DARI KAKAO HASIL PENYANGRAIAN MENGGUNAKAN ENERJI GELOMBANG MIKRO

[Antioxidant Activity of Crude Polyphenol Extract from Microwave Roasted Cocoa Bean]

Supriyanto1), Haryadi2), Budi Rahardjo3), dan Djagal Wiseso Marseno4)

1),2),4)Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian FTP-UGM 3)Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknik Pertanian FTP-UGM

Diterima 15 September 2006 / Disetujui 7 Mei 2007

Microwave heating is faster than the conventional way, therefore it is interesting to apply this technology for cocoa roasting. This research aimed to analyze the effect of microwave roasting of ground cocoa nib on the antioxidative properties of the crude polyphenol extract from the product.The results indicated that microwave roasting of ground cocoa nib for 5 min, adjusted at 20% of the full power (900W) gave no significant difference in the inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and scavenging of DPPH radical activity of the crude polyphenol extract compared to that of the conventional roasting at 140 0C for 40 min. But the product showed higher reduction of ferric ion activity and lower chelating ferro ion activity. The crude polyphenol extract inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and scavenged DPPH free radical. The inhibition was lower than that of either BHT or a-tocoferol at concentrations lower than 400 ug/ml for linoleic acid oxidation and lower than 40 ug/ml for DPPH free radical scavenging. The crude polyphenol extract reduced ferric ion, though lower than BH.

T Key words : Cocoa bean, microwave, roasting, polyphenol, antioxidant activity.

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PERUBAHAN PROFIL LIPIDA, KOLESTEROL DIGESTA DAN ASAM PROPIONAT PADA TIKUS DENGAN DIET TEPUNG RUMPUT LAUT

[Change in the profiles lipid, digesta cholesterol and propionic acid of rats fed with of seaweed powder-based diets]

Herpandi1), Made Astawan2), Tutik Wresdiyati2), dan Nurheni Sri Palupi2)

1)Dosen PS Teknologi Hasil Perikanan Fakultas Pertanian UNSRI 2)Dosen PS. Ilmu Pangan Sekolah Pascasarjana IPB

Diterima 20 Sepetermber 2006 / Disetujui 24 Mei 2007

Community’s consumption pattern with high fat-low fiber has caused the prevalence of degenerative disease, i.e.cardivascular disease. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is the first cause of death in Indonesia. Seaweed is a fiber rich food and has a hypocholesterolemic effect. Objectives of the research were to investigate the changes of lipid profiles, digesta cholesterol and propionic acid of rats fed with seaweed powder-based diet. Five groups of six male Sprague Dawley hypercolesterolemia rats were feed by 0% cholesterol and 0% seaweed powder (negative control); 1% cholesterol and 10% Eucheuma cottonii, 1% cholesterol and 10% Gelidium sp,1% cholesterol and 10% Sargassum sp, and 1% cholesterol and 0% seaweed powder (positive control) for 31 days. The experiment result showed that the seaweed powder did not have a significant effect (P>0,05) on the growth and feed consumption, and serum HDL (Hight Density Lipoprotein) but has a significant effect (P 0.05) on the texture and dissolution rate of effervescent tablet. Variations of formula did not significantly influence (?

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AKTIVITAS ANTI KANKER SENYAWA-SENYAWA KITOOLIGOMER

[Anti Cancer Activity of Chitooligomers]

Sri Wahyuni1), Fransisca Zakaria2), Arief B.Witarto3), Dahrul Syah2), dan Maggy.T Suhartono2)

1)Staf Pengajar MIPA, FKIP, UNHALU 2)Staf pengajar pada Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi pangan IPB 3)Peneliti Senior pada Pusat Bioteknologi LIPI Cibinong Bogor

Diterima 5 Maret 2006/ Disetujui 2 Juni 2006

The chitin obtained from the crab industries can be used as a source for production of chitooligomers which has an important biological activity. The aims of this research was to evaluate anti cancer activity of the chitooligomers obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis using chitosanase from thermophilic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis MB2 isolated from Tompaso Manado. Media for producing the enzyme contained colloidal chitosan 1% and the enzyme was harvested after seven days of incubation at 550C. The heat stable protein enzyme was coagulated with 80% saturated ammonium sulphate and purificated using hydrophobic interaction chromatography with butyl sepharose gel. Enzyme of 0.005, 0.0085, 0.10 dan 0,17 IU/mg chitosan on soluble chitosan 1% substrate with 85% degree of deacylation were used to produce chitooligomers through incubation for one and three hours. The reaction products were analyzed (and fractionated) using HPLC. The effect of this samples on cancer cells was evaluated using K562 cells (chronic myelogenous leukemia) and investigated after being treated with MTT (3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide). In general, hydrolysates and fractionated chitooligomers showed better anti cancer activity than the 2- Bromo deoxy uridine used as positive control at similiar concentration (17 ?g/ml). Both of hydrolysates and fractionated chitooligomers (trimer to hexamer) inhibited proliferation of human K562 cancer cells line in vitro about 20.57% and 15.68% respectively.The apoptosis phenomena was found on K562 cells treated with chitooligomer hydrolysate which can be examined by Hoechts staining fluorescent method. Chitooligomers hydrolysate showed anti metastatic potential, the chitooligomers were found also as potent protease inhibitor.

Keywords : chitooligomers, chitosan, anticancer

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PENGOLAHAN BERAS WANGI BUATAN METODE DAN RETENSI SENYAWA AROMA

[Processing of Artificial Fragrant Rice The Method and Aroma Retention]

Filli Pratama

Dosen di Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian Unsri Palembang

Diterima 10 Maret 2006 / Disetujui 5 November 2006

Processing of artificial fragrant rice in which one or more aroma compounds were introduced into raw milled rice were studied. The end product, which is potentially marketable, showed no visible difference in appearance from the untreated rice, and the cooked product showed perceivable aroma to the consumers. The aromatisation process used liquid carbon dioxide as a vehicle to deliver the aroma. Five aroma compounds of eugenol, iso-eugenol, methyl eugenol, cinnamyl alcohol, and cinnamaldehyde were used as model compounds. The results showed that liquid carbon dioxide at a pressure of 8 MPa and an equilibration time of 5 minutes were found to be the optimum conditions for imparting the aroma compounds into the rice. The retention of the model aroma compounds in rice were in the range of 33% to 50%. The aroma carrier was found to be able to carry the model compounds into the core of rice. This was significant, as it potentially provided a longer period for the aroma compounds to remain in the rice.

Key words: artificial fragrant rice, liquid carbon dioxide, aroma.

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SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA BUAH MANGGA (Mangifera indica L.) SELAMA PENYIMPANAN DENGAN BERBAGAI METODE PENGEMASAN

[Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Mangos (Mangifera indica L.) during Storage with Various Methods of Packaging

Merynda Indriyani Syafutri1), Filli Pratama1), dan Daniel Saputra1)

1)Staf Pengajar pada Program Studi Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Sriwijaya, Indralaya Palembang

Diterima 5 Maret 2006 / Disetujui 20 Juni 2006

The research was aimed to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of mangos in various packing methods during storage. Factorial Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and three replications were used in this research. The treatments were individually and collectively packed mangos which were stored at 10 and 200C. The physical and chemical changes of mangos in the flexible packaging (individual and collective) were slower than mangos without packaging. Collectively packed mango stored was with the storage temperature of 100C was found to have longer shelf life than that of other treatments. On day 25, the collectively packed mango had weight loss of 1,464%, 0,316 Kgf hardness, 11,4% total sugars, 0,44% total acids, and 229,44 mg/100g vitamin C. Further duo-trio test indicated that panelists could detect the differences of the taste between packed and freshly harvested mangos. The hedonic test shows that most panelists preferred the taste of mangos that were collectively packed and stored at 100C (on day 10).

Key words: Mangos, method, packaging, storage

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SIFAT FISIKO-KIMIA TEPUNG SUWEG (AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS B1.) DAN INDEKS GLISEMIKNYA

[Properties Of Suweg (Amorphophallus Campanulatus B1) And Its Glicemic Index]

Didah Nur Faridah

Staf Pengajar Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, FATETA IPB PO BOX 220 Darmaga Bogor 16002

Diterima 20 Oktober 2005 / Disetujui 6 Februari 2006

Suweg (Amorphophallus campanulatus B1) is an indigenous tuber potentially used as an alternative food source. The objective of the study was to identify the functional properties, i.e. dietary fiber and Glicemic Index (IG) of Suweg by in vivo method using human. The experiment was conducted in three steps i.e suweg flour production, analysis of suweg flour functional properties, and determination of glycemic index (IG) using human. Suweg tuber had high content of dietary fiber (13,71%), and protein (7,20%) but had low fat content (0,28%). Suweg tuber had low IG (42) with low starch in vitro digestibility (61,75%), hence its was categorized as food product with low IG (

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MEMPELAJARI PROSES PENYULINGAN MINYAK NILAM MELALUI DELIGNIFIKASI DAUN

[Study on Distilation Process of Patchouli Oil Through Leaves Delignification]

Nasruddin1, Gatot Priyanto2, dan Basuni Hamzah2

1Staf Balai Industri, Mahasiswa Program Doktor Ilmu Pertanian Pascasarjana-UNSRI
2Staf Fakultas Pertanian dan Pascasarjana UNSRI

Diterima 20 Oktober 2005/ Disetujui 6 Februari 2006

Research was objected to determine the effect of patchouli leaves preparation on the distillation efficiency and quality of patchouli oil. The patchouli leaves (Pogostemon cablin Benth) were taken from Pandan Dulang Village, Muara Enim. It was separated from the stems and dried until maximum moisture content of 15%. Experiment was conducted in two replications base on these treatments, i.e delignification temperature (550C, 800C) and fermentation time (2, 4, 6, 8, days). NaOH solution (0,25%) was used for delignification. The distillation process was conducted at 100  20C and ambient pressure environment. Patchouli oil quality was expressed as several parameter such as ester numbers, acid numbers, and specific gravity.

The result showed that increasing of fermentation time is followed by decreasing of the patchouli oil quality. Delignification at 550C for 6 days was identified as the treatment produced the highest efficiency process which about 2,346% (w/w) of patchouli oil that could be extracted and showed specific gravity 0.959, acid number 0,761 and ester number 4,561. All patchouli oil produced using the treatment of fermentation time were in the range of physico-chemical quality standard of patchouli oil given by SNI no 06-2385-1991.

Keyword : patchouli leaves, preparation, delignification, fermentation, and distillation

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PENGEMBANGAN KONSEP SISTEM JAMINAN HALAL DI RUMAH POTONG AYAM (Studi kasus pada industri daging ayam)

[Concept Development Of Halal Assurance System In The Chicken Slaughter House (Case Study Of Chicken Meat Industry)]

Wiwit Estuti1, Rizal Syarief2, dan Joko Hermanianto2

1Staf Pengajar Jurusan Gizi Politeknik Kesehatan Padang
2Staf Pengajar Program Studi IImu Pangan Sekolah Pasca Sarjana IPB

Diterima 15 Juli 2005 / Disetujui 20 Desember 2006

The application of effective halal assurance system model was one of producer’s effort to supply halal food for Moslem consumers. The objective Of this research was to develop halal assurance system concept which is consist of halal manual. Halal Standard Operating Procedure, Guideline, and Work Instruction which should be applied at Chicken Slaughter House. flied research used descriptive method by distributing questionnaire, direct observation, on-site verification and halal assurance system assessment on two Chicken Slaughter House. The halal assurance system assessment was conducted based on ISO 9000, 2000 guideline of arrangement of HACCP system. The conclusion of this research was that this Halal Assurance System was suitable to be used as a standard for Chicken Slaughter House. The document change on both industry was that of applied halal assurance system. It was found that there were two kinds of haram Critical Control Point, which were two points at raw material and four point at chicken production process.

Keywords : concept, model, assurance, halal, slaughter house

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OPTIMASI PEMADATAN CEPAT PADA PENGAYAAN MINYAK IKAN HASIL SAMPING PENGALENGAN LEMURU DENGAN ASAM LEMAK -3 MENGGUNAKAN METODE PERMUKAAN RESPON

[Optimization of Rapid Solidification to Enrich Fish Oil from by-Product of Lemuru Canning Processing with w-3 batty Acids by Response Surface Method]

Teti Estiasih1, Fithri Choirun Nisa1, Kgs. Ahmadi2, dan Umiatun3

1Staf Pengajar Jurusan THP- FTP � Universitas Brawijaya – Malang
2Staf Pengajar Jurusan TIP-FP- Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi- Malang
3Alumni Jurusan THP- FTP- Universitas Brarwijaya Malang

Diterirna 25 November 2005 / Disetujui 31 Januari 2006

Oil from by-product of lemuru canning processing was a source of w-3 fatty acid but its characteristics had out been known. The content of w-3 fatty acids of this oil had to be increased. Various methods are available to enhance w-3 fatty acids concentration Rapid solidification was one of limited methods to enrich fish oil by w-3 fatty acids containing triglycerides.
This research was conducted to optimize rapid solidification condition to enrich fish oil from by product of lemuru canning processing with w-3 fatty acids and characterize the enriched oil compared by International Association of Fish Meal and Oil Manufacturers standard. In optimization process, the content of EPA+OHA and yield .was maximized. A two-factors central composite design in Response Surface Method was used to study the effect of solvent-to-oil ratio (X1) and extraction time (X2). The response (Y) is the multiplication of EPA+DHA content by yield.
The results showed that under optimum conditions the maximum response were obtained at a solvent-to-oil ratio of 3,95:1(vw) and extraction time of 24,93 hours. The w-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil had EPA+DHA content of 33,33% and yield of 9.40% (w/w).
The produced w-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil had good quality based on food grade fish oil standard, unless Fe and Cu content. Chelation could reduce these oxidizing metals.

Key words : w-3 fatty acids, rapid solidification, response surface method, central composite design.

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PENGARUH SORPSI AIR DAN SUHU TRANSISI GELAS TERHADAP LAJU PENCOKALATAN NON-ENZIMATIS PADA PANGAN MODEL

[The Effect of Water Sorption and Glass Transition Temperature on Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction of Food Models]

Dede R Adawiyab1, ST Soekarto1, P Hariyadi1, dan Suyitno2

1staf pengajar Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fateta, IPB
2Staf pengajar Jurusan Teknologi Pengolahan Hasil Pertanian. Fateta, UGM

Diterima 20 November 2005/ Disetujui 8 Februari 2006

This research was aimer/ to study the extend of non enzymatic browning reaction in food models containing the mixture of tapioca starch, casein, sucrose and oh at different moisture contents (2.55%, 5.26%, 7.54%, 15.20%. 15.93% and 23.99%) and storage temperatures (30, 55 and 700C). The non-enzymatic browning reaction was detected from brown color intensity measured by spechtrophotometer and colorimetric methods. The non-enzymatic browning reaction or food model follow pseudo-zero order reaction, suggesting that browning reaction occurred at moisture content above monolayer zone. T-Tg (T storage – Tg prediction) and reaction rate constant (k) plots showed that browning reaction occurred at temperature around glass transition and increased significantly at 150 above Tg of casein. Tapioca starch in the food model was under glassy condition. The mobility of substrate increased and diffused at amorphous matrix.

Keywords : glass transition, non-enzymatic browning, glassy, amorphous

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OPTIMASI PEMADATAN CEPAT PADA PENGAYAAN MINYAK IKAN HASIL SAMPING PENGALENGAN LEMURU DENGAN ASAM LEMAK -3 MENGGUNAKAN METODE PERMUKAAN RESPON

[Optimization of Rapid Solidification to Enrich Fish Oil from by-Product of Lemuru Canning Processing with w-3 batty Acids by Response Surface Method]

Teti Estiasih1, Fithri Choirun Nisa1, Kgs. Ahmadi2, dan Umiatun3

1Staf Pengajar Jurusan THP- FTP � Universitas Brawijaya – Malang
2Staf Pengajar Jurusan TIP-FP- Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi- Malang
3Alumni Jurusan THP- FTP- Universitas Brarwijaya Malang

Diterirna 25 November 2005 / Disetujui 31 Januari 2006

Oil from by-product of lemuru canning processing was a source of w-3 fatty acid but its characteristics had out been known. The content of w-3 fatty acids of this oil had to be increased. Various methods are available to enhance w-3 fatty acids concentration Rapid solidification was one of limited methods to enrich fish oil by w-3 fatty acids containing triglycerides.
This research was conducted to optimize rapid solidification condition to enrich fish oil from by product of lemuru canning processing with w-3 fatty acids and characterize the enriched oil compared by International Association of Fish Meal and Oil Manufacturers standard. In optimization process, the content of EPA+OHA and yield .was maximized. A two-factors central composite design in Response Surface Method was used to study the effect of solvent-to-oil ratio (X1) and extraction time (X2). The response (Y) is the multiplication of EPA+DHA content by yield.
The results showed that under optimum conditions the maximum response were obtained at a solvent-to-oil ratio of 3,95:1(vw) and extraction time of 24,93 hours. The w-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil had EPA+DHA content of 33,33% and yield of 9.40% (w/w).
The produced w-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil had good quality based on food grade fish oil standard, unless Fe and Cu content. Chelation could reduce these oxidizing metals.

Key words : w-3 fatty acids, rapid solidification, response surface method, central composite design.

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KINETIKA FERMENTASI PADA PRODUKSI XILITOL DENGAN PENAMBAHAN ARABINOSA DAN GLUKOSA SEBAGAI KOSUBSTRAT OLEH Candida shehatae WAY 08

A Kinetic Study of Xylitol Production with Glucose and Arabinose as Cosubstrate by Candida shehatae WAY 08

Wisnu Adi Yulianto1, Kapti Rahayu Kuswanto2, Tranggono2, dan Retno Indrati2

1Faku/tas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Wangsa Mangga)a, Yogyakarla 55753. Fax 0274-798213
2Fakuhas Teknologi Pehanian, Universitas Gadjah Made, Yoqyakara) 53281., Fax 0274-549650

Diterima 30 November 2005 / Disetuiui 8 Januari 2008

Xylitol production by Candida shehatae WAY 08 was investigated under two sets of conditions (a) with addition of glucose or arabinose as cosubstrate, (b) ratio of xylose to cosubstrate at the range of 6:1� 6:3%. The fermentation was performed at 3000/n 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks placed in a shaker incubator at 200 rpm for 72 h. Biornass concentration was calculated as dry mass. Xylose. cosubstrate. xylitol, ethanol, and acetic acid concentrator ware determined using API. C.

The result indicated that addition of arabinose as cosubstrate to xylose within the ratio range of 1:6�3:6% could increase xylitol production. The highest xylitol yield (0,84 gIg) and volumetric rate of xylitol production (0.66 g/Lh) were achieved at ratio of xylose to arabinose as high as 6:1%. However, addition of glucose as cosubstrate decreased xylitul production. A medium containing 6% glucose as a sole carbon source could achieve the hiqhest ethanol yield(0.32 g/g) and growth yièld (0,21/ gIg). wh;/e arabinose as a sole source was metabolized mainly for biomoss formation.

Key words xylose. cosubstrate. arabinose, glucose. xylitoi. Candida shehatae WAY 08.

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MODIFIKASI ASILASI DAN SUKSINILASI PATI TAPIOKA

[Modification of Acylation and Succinylation of Tapioca Starch]

Rini Hustiany1, Dedi Fardiaz2, Anton Apriyantono2), dan Nun 2

1Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjar baru
2Departemen IImu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Diterima 29 Agustus 2005 / Disetujui 20 Januari 2006

Modified starch is one of ingredients commonly used in food processing for coating and flavor encapsulation. This component can be made by modifying the structure of native starch either through chemical or enzymatic reaction. This research was aimed to chemically modify tapioca starch into a modified starch with improved coating characteristic. The tapioca starch was first hydrolyzed to a hydrolyzate with dextrose equivalent of 9.1, Both tapioca starch and hydrolyzate were further acylated with stearic acid and propiooic acid and succinylated with succinic acid. The concentrations of acids used for acylation and succinylation were 2,44. 4.76 and 9.09%. The modified starches were analyzed for their yield and moisture content, the degree of substitution, functional groups, crystalline structure polarization, gelatinization properties and viscosity. The moisture content of the modified starches was 1.52-3.32% and the yield was 87.45-95.43%. The hydroxyl group substitution into acyl and succinyl groups was low, i.e 0.03-0.04 and 0.05-0.08 respectively. The result show that methyl. methylene and CO carbonyl groups were formed in the modified starches. The crystalline structure of the modified starches was broken. This revealed that the peak 22.620 was widen and the doublet were disappearing on peak 16.850 and 17.990 Birefringence of the acylated and succinylated starch changed significantly and disappeared in the case of acylated and succinytatod hydrolizate. The initial and optimum gelatinization temperature of acylated and succinylated starch were 57.6-64.200 and 68.62-9i4’C respectively, and the maximum viscosity was 14-714 Brabender Unit. No initial and optimum geletanization temperature nor maximum viscosity was found in acylated and succinylated hydrolyzate. Based on our finding it is suggested that acylation (9,09%) and succinylatim (4.76%) of tapioca starch can be used to modify the starch into a product with better coating characteristic.
,br> Key words : tapioca starch, modified starch, hydrolyzed starch. acylation, succinylation

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MASA SIMPAN BUAH MANGGIS (Garcinia mangostana L.) PADA BERBAGAI TINGKAT KEMATANGAN, SUHU DAN JENIS KEMASAN

[Shelf life of Manggis Fruit (Garcinia mangostana L.) at Various Fruit Maturity Levels, Temperature, and Types of Packaging]

Hasbi1, Daniel Saputra1, dan Juniar2

1Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian. Fakultas Pertanian Unsri, Palembang
2Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian Unsri, Palernbang

Diterima 20 September 2005 / Disetujui 16 Januari 2006

The objective of this research was to study the effect of manggis fruit maturity levels, temperature, and types of packaging on the shelf fife of manggis fruit (Garcinia mangostana L), The experimental design used was Factorial Completely Randomized Design with three factors consisting of manggis fruit maturity levels (tinged with purple and brown), packaging types (flexible and stretch film), and storage temperature (l50C and 250C) using two replication for each treatment. The result showed that maturity level had significant effect on weight toss, color but had no significant effect on hardness, total sugar and total acid of manggis fruit during storage. The suitable packaging type to maintain the quality of manggis fruit with maturity level of tinged purple was the flexible type, which result n a shelf life of 33 days. Packaging suitable for manggis fruit with maturity level of brown was the stretch type, which had the shelf life of 39 days. Storage temperature to maintain quality was l50C.

Keyword: shelf life. physical quality, chemical quality maturity level, packaging.

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SIKLODEKSTRIN GLIKOSIL TRANSFERASE DAN PEMANFAATANNYA DALAM INDUSTRI

[Cyclodextrin Glycosyl Transferase and its application in industries]

Budiasih Wahyuntari

Bidang Teknologi Biokatalis, Pusat Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi Bioindustri, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi, Gedung BPPT II/15, tel. 021-756-0536/316-9509, fax. 021-756-0536/316-9510, Jl. M. H Thamrin8, Jakarta 10340, e-mail budiasih@webmail,bppt.go.id; budiasih_solichin@yahoo.com

Diterima 10 Desember 2005 / Disetujui 6 Maret 2006

Cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase (CGT-ase) is mainly produced by Bacilli. Systematical name of the enzyme is E.C. 2.4.1.19 -1,4 glucan-4-glycosyl transferase. The enzyme catalyzes hydrolysis of starch intramolecular, and intermolecular transglycosylation of -1,4, glucan chains. Cyclodextrins are -1,4 linked cyclic oligosaccharides resulting from enzymatic degradation of starch by cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase through untramolecular transglycosylation. The major cyclodextrins are made up of 6, 7 and 8 glucopyranose units which are known as -, -, and -cyclodextrin. All CGT-ase catalyze three kinds of cyclodextrins, the proportion of the cyclodextrins depends on the enzyme source and reaction conditions. The intermolecular transglycosylation ability of the enzyme has been applied in transfering glycosyl residues into suitable acceptor. Transglycosylation by the enzymes have been tested to improve solubility of some flavonoids and to favor precipitation ci some glycosides.

Keywords : cyclodextrin, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase

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ANALISIS KADAR AIR DAN AKTIFITAS AIR KRITIKAL PRODUK SATA DARI MALAYSIA DAN IMPLIKASINYA PADA SIFAT-SIFAT PRODUK DAN UMUR SIMPANNYA

[Analysis of Critical Moisture and Water Activity of Malaysian Sata and Its Implication to Product Characteristics and Shelf Life]

Rita Hayati1, Aminah Abdullah2, Mohd.Khan Ayob2, dan Soewarno T.Soekarto3

1Dosen Universitas Syiah Kuala, Darussalam Banda Aceh, peserta Program Doktor Falsafah di Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia
2Dosen iurusan Kimia dan Teknologi Makanan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia
3Departemen llmu dan Teknologi Pangan, lnstitut Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia

Diterima 20 September 2005/ Disetujui 10 Desember 2005

Critical moisture and water activity of Sata. a Malaysian traditional food made of fish and young coconut meats, were analyzed for the first and second critical points of transition among the primary, secondary and tertiary bound water fractions in the Sata. It was found out that the first critical points of moisture content and water activity were M, of 5.09 % db (4.73 % wb) and ar of 0.44 respectively. The second critical points were water content M5 of 19.38 % db(15.2 % wb) and water activity as of 79 % respectively. The upper limit of he tertiary bound water (Mt) was 75.3 % db (43.0 % wb). Sate sample in the primary bound water fraction (represented by moisture content at 5.0 % rib / 4.73 % wb), was stable in color and appearance, but slightly rancid due to molecular mobility of the liquid oil content The sample in the secondary bound water fraction (represented by moisture content of 15.0% db / 13.0% wb), has a color change to darker brown: and in the tertiary bound water fraction (represented by moisture of 30.5 % db / 23.4 % wb), mold growth appeared on the 10th day storage. The characteristics of the Malaysian Sate indicated an intermediate moisture food (IMF) with water content of 37.5% wb, water activity of 0.9 and limited shelf tile to, few days at room temperature.

Key words : Malaysian sata critical aw. critical moisture, sorption isotherm, shelf life

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PERANAN PROGRAM STUDI TEKNIK PANGAN (FOO ENGINEERING) UNTUK MENUNJANG PEMBANGUNAN INDUSTRI PANGAN DI INDONESIA

The Roles of Engineering fot the Development of Agro Industries in indonesia

Budi Rahardjo dan Suhargo

Laboratorium Teknik Pangan dan Proses Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada-Yogyakarta

Diterima 20Mei 2005 / Disetujui 29 September 2005

At this time more than 60 % of Indonesian population still depend on the agricultural sector. Accordingly, in future agro and food industries are expected to be the main steppingstone for the economic development in Indonesia. In order to make the agricultural products competitive in the global market; it is necessary that the development of food or agro industries is supported by technology especially in the food product development and their processing. The food product development consist of food product design, process design, equipment and machinery design and packaging design. Consequently the food product development requires the knowledge of food science, and is necessary to be supported by the knowledge of engineering or know as food engineering. As a course, food engineering is already offered in the study program of food science and technology. However, food engineering is not developed yet as a study program as well as in the other countries, the study program in food engineering is necessarily different from the study program of food science and technology. Food engineering is scientific discipline to study and apply the engineering principles in food preservation, conservation, conversion and distribution. In several countries both study programs are paralely offered as two different study programs with deferent competence and knowledge. The competency of food engineering is mainly in the application of engineering knowledge for food design, design and construction of food process equipment, process design, process equipment operation and management. Accordingly, the content of the food engineering curriculum covers engineering and physics (50-60%), biology and food science (20-30%) and other supporting knowledge’s (statics, communication, etc, 10-20%). The graduates in food engineering will have opportunities working as engineers as well as designing, constructing and operating process equipment in food industries, as researchers and developers of food processes in research institution, as consultant for food industries, or as teaching staff in universities or higher educations. Therefore, study program in food engineering is important to be established. It will significantly support development appropriate technology for agro industries in Indonesia. This study program can be organized together as the study programs in food science and technology and agricultural engineering that already exist in several universities.

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PENGERING SUHU RENDAH UNTUK MENJAGA MUTU BAHAN PERTANIAN

Low Temperature Drying to Maintain the Quality of Agricultural Products

R. Sarwono

Pusat Penelitian Kimia (P2K)-LIPI Kopmlek Puspitek, Serpong-Tanggerang (15314)

Diterima 20Mei 2005 / Disetujui 29 Agustus 2005

Drying equipment is an important unit operation in industrial processes. Reducing moisture content in order to prolog the storage time is very commonly used. There are many agricultural product which are very heat sensitive. To maintain the essential ingredient in those product, drying process should be applied at low temperature drying process gave lower drying rate, is time consuming and in general costly. Increasing drying rate by reducing the absolute humidity is this recommended. There are many ways to dry the air, firstly moisture is condensed in evaporator and then dried air is heated in condenser. Is conducted if the drying system in connected with heat pump system. Secondly, moisture is absorbed by hygroscopic materials such as CaO. Water absorbed and reacted with CaO become Ca(OH)2 in exothermic reaction, and simultaneously dried air is heated.

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KARAKTERISTIK SERBUK LABU KUNING (Cucurbita moschata)

Characteristic of Pumpkin Powder (Cucurbita moschata)

Sri Usmiati 1, D. Setyaningsih 2,E.Y Purwani 1, S.Yuliani 1 dan Maria O.G 3

1Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian Bogor, 2Departemen Teknologi Industri Pertanian Fateta IPB, 3Mahasiswa Departemen TIN Fateta IPB

Diterima tanggal 2 Maret 2005 / Disetujui 17 Juli 2005

Instant powder of pumpkins was made by mollen dryer in order to extend the product shelf life The aim of the research was to determine the characteristics of the pumpkin powder. The research had been designed using completely randomized block factorial pattern, two levels of drying-up temperature and three levels of mollen dryer speed rotation on two blocks of pumpkin (I and II groups). The parameters measured were percentage of yield, water content, ash, solubility, and sugar, pH, bulk density (g/ml), beta-carotene (µg/g), colors, and hedonic test (scale 1 ===================================================================== not accepted through 5 ===================================================================== really accepted). The research result showed that the drying temperature affected solubility, and the speed rotation affected sugar content of pumpkin powder. The best pumpkin powder was produced by mollen dryer at 60ºC degree and 6 rpm speed rotation which was characterized by high yield and solubility, also produced best hedonic value on taste, color and performance as compared to the other treatment.

Key words : Pumpkin, drying-up temperature, speed rotation, mollen dryer

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PURIFIKASI DAN KATRAKTERISTIK ENZIM LIPOKSIGENASE KACANG TANAH

Purification and Characterization of Peanut Lipoxygenase Enzime

B.A.S. Santosa 1, A. Eliana 2 dan S. Widowati 1

1 Balai Besar Litbang Pascapanen Pertanian, Badan Litbang Pertanian 2Alumnus Institut Pertanian Bogor

Diterima 20 Juni 2005 / Disetujui 10 Agustus 2005

Fat oxidation of peanut is a serious problem, because it could reduce of peanut quality and form a hydroperoxide compound. Hydroperoxide could be broken down into acid, ketone and low peptide, and resulted in volatile compounds with undersirable aroma. Extraction on enzyme was carried out by water, while purification and fractination were conducted using ammonium sulphate and chromatography. The objective of this research was to evaluate of the protein fraction, lipoxygenase properties, and enzyme activity during fractionation. The result showed that the highest fraction of protein was globulin, i.e 41-48% of total extracted protein, and the activity of lipoxygenase enzyme in the albumin fraction was 40-54% of the total activity. Purification of lipoxygenase enzyme was conducted by using ammonium sulphate (40-60% saturated) and this increased its specific activity up to 2.0-4.2 timer from the crude enzyme. Separation of lipoxygenase enzyme using sephadex G-150 revealed 3 (tree) peaks of activities, with specific activities 6.0-70.0 fold of the crude enzyme. Lipoxygenase enzyme of gajah variety denatured when heated at 700C during 30 minutes. The activition energy of lipoxygenase enzyme from Gajah variety (19.083 Cal/Mol) was relatively lower than 1509 and 1512 which were, 25.446 Cal/Mol and 24.780 Cal/Mol, respectively. The result showed that lipoxygenase enzyme from Gajah variety was relativeky more heat stable as compared to the 1509 and 1512 lines. Lower activation energy of lipoxygenase enzyme indicated that effect of temperature alteration toward ‘k’ value was smaller. Lipoxygenase enzyme was active at pH higher than 3.0 or lower than 10.0. the data indicated that ‘Km’ value of lipoxygenase enzyme from Gajah variety was higher than that of 1509 and 1512 lines. It means that lipoxygenase enzyme from 1509 and 1512 lines more reactive that gajah variety.

Key words : Lipoxygenase, peanut, purification

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EKSTRAKSI DAN STABILITAS ANTOSIANIN DARI KULIT BUAH DUWET (SYZYGIUM CUMINI)

Extraction and Stability of Anthocyanins From Jambolan (SYZYGIUM CUMINI) Skins

PuspitaSari 1), Fitria Agustina 2), Mukhamad Komar 2), Unus 1), Mukhamad Fauzi 1), dan Triana Lindriati 1)

1Staf Pangajar Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, FTP-Universitas Jember 2Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, FTP-Universitas Jember

Diterima 18 Januari 2005 / Disetujui 18 Juli 2005

Anthocyanins were extracted from jambolan skins using neutral solvents e.i water, ethanol, sopropanol, water ; ethanol (1:1), water : isopropanol (1:1), ethanol : isopropanol (1:1), and water, ethanol, isoppropanol (1:1:1) at 5 and 270>C. the stability of the anthocyanins was as effected by pH, heat, oxidator, and light was investigated. The extraction using combination of water and isopropanol at 270C showed the highest total yield, i.e 71.54% (db). Furthermore, the highest anthocyanin concentration and yield were obtained in the extracts using combination of water and ethanol at 270>C i.e. 10 007.03 mg/L (db) and 2.78% (db), respectively. At low pH, the pigment extracts sowed high stability; and gradually decreased and lost color when the pH was increased. The greatest color intensity (red) was obtained at pHs values less than 3.5. The anthocyanins were relatively stable during heating temperature of 40 and 600C in which more than 80% of pigment could be maintained for 4 hour of heating. Heating at high temperatures (80 and 1000C) decreased the color stability more than 80%. Presence of oxidator H2O2 reduced the stability up to 73.52%. The UV and flouresecent light exposure for 7 days also reduced the stability by 11.47% and 10.62%, respectively.

Key words: Anthocyanins, Jambolan skin, Extraction, pigment stability

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PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN, DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUN BAYAM(Amaranthus tricolor L.)

Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.)

Asep Sopian 1, Ridwan Thahir 2, dan Tien R. Muchtadi 3

1 Alumni Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, IPB 2 Kepala Balai Besar Penelitian Pasca Panen Pertanian, Bogor 3 Guru Besar Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, IPB

Diterima 5 Juni 2005 / Disetujui 28 Agustus 2005

Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer) on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanching and drying of increased brightness, a value, and b value. The a value is shows spinach brightness in mix red-green color while b value shows mix blue-yellow. Total carotene of fresh spinach decreased by 10.47% after blanching. Drying with vacuum decreased the total carotene by 39.31% (with blanching) and 31.66 (with blanching). Drying with freeze dryer decreased the beta carotene by 4.99% (with blanching) and 18.60% (with blanching). Drying with FIR dryer decreased spinach total carotene by 34.90% (with blanching) and 24.86% (with blanching). The beta-carotene of fresh spinach with balancing treatment decreased of by 16.53%.drying oven vacuum decreased the beta carotene by 42.80% (wiyh blanching) and 18.91% (with blanching). Drying with freeze dyer decreased the beta carotene by 29.03% (with blanching) the beta carotene. The decreased of beta-carotene is bigger than total carotene. Vitamin C of fresh spinach decreased by 20.35% after blanching. Drying with oven vacuum decreased of 55.77% (without blanching) and 65.42% (with blanching) f the vitamin C. drying with freeze dryer decreased the vitamin C by 13.21% (without blanching) and 30.67% (with blanching). Meanwhile, the vitamin C of spinach after drying with FIR dyer decreased of 60.53% (without blanching) and 70.29% (with blanching).

Key words: Spinach, drying, blanching, far infra red dyer, oven vacuum, freeze dyer, total carotene, beta carotene, vit C.

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PENGARUH ASAM ASKORBAT TERHADAP PEMBENTUKAN GEL MOFIBRIL IKAN MATA BESAR (Selar crumenophthalnus)

effect of ascorbic acid on gel formation of myofibril from big eye scad fish (Selar crumenophthalnus)

Achmad Subagio, Wiwik siti Windrati, Mukhamad Fauzi dan Yuli Witono

Lab. Kimia Dan Biokimia Hasil Pertanian Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian Fakultas Taknologi Pertanian Universias Jember Jl. Kalimantan I JEMBER 68121 e-mail; a_subagio@telkom.net

Diterima 15 maret 2005 / Disetujui 18 Agustus 2005

Effect of ascorbic acid on gel formation of myofibril from big eye scad fish (Selar crumenophthalnus)were studied for its development as food ingredient. Myofibril was galled by the addition of various concentrations of ascorbic acid (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%) and the gels were then characterized for its cooking loss, of the gel, but at 0.4% the cooking loss of gel increased significantly. Accordingly, the WHC of the gel changed insignificantly with the ascorbic acid addition below 0.3%, and decrease sharply in the addition of 0.4%. Gel textures were affected by the addition of ascorbic acid at all levels, namely 29.9 ± 1.9, 31.0 ± 0.3, 35.4 ± 0.4, 46.7 ± 1.5, and 115.7 ± 3.2 g/7 mm for 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that addition of ascorbic acid drove formation odfdisulphide bond in the myosin heavy chain (MHC) and other myofirillar proteins, resulting in the development of a strong three dimensions structure I myofibril gel as shown by microscopic structure.

Key words : Ascorbic acid, Big eye Scad Fish (Selar crumenophthalnus), el formation myofibril

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AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK BUNGA KECOMBRANG TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGEN DAN PERUSAK PANGAN

Antibacterial Activity of Kecombrang Flower Extract Toward Pathogenic and Food Spoilage Bacteria

Rifda Naufalin 1, Betty Sri Laksmi Jenie 2, Feri Kusnandar 2, Mirnawati Sudarwamto 3, dan Herastuti Rukmini 4

1 Mahasiswa Sekolah Pascasarjana, Program Studi Ilmu Pangan, IPB
2 Staf Pengajar Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, IPB
3 Staf Pengajar Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, IPB
4 Staf Pengajar Fakultas Pertanian, UNSOED

Diterima 20 April 2005 / Disetujui 4 Agustus 2005

In this study, kecombrang flowers was extracted with non polar (hexane), semipolar (ethil acetate) and polar (ethanol) solvent. The result revealed that ethil acetat and ethanol extracts inhibited 7 bacteria, i.e : spore forming bacteria (Bacillus cereus), Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and (Listeria monocytogenes), Gram negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli), spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) but did not inhibit Lactobacillus plantarum. The hexane extract did not show antimicrobial activity. On well diffusion test, ethil acetate developed clear zones of 12.3 – 27.3 mm (diameters) and this was higher than ethanol extract 11.0-15.4 mm (diameters). The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of ethil acetate and ethanol extract against the seven bacteria were 3-13 mg/ml.

Key words : Kecombrang (Nicolia speciosa), antibacteria, extract

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BAHAN PENYERAP KMnO4 DAN ASAM L-ASKORBAT DALAM PENGEMASAN AKTIF (ACTIVE PACKAGING) UNTUK MEMPERPANJANG MASA SIMPAN DAN MEMPERTAHANKAN MUTU BUAH DUKU (Lansium domesticum Corr.)

Adsorbers for KMnO 4 and L-Ascorbic Acid in the Active Packaging to Prolong the Shelve-Life and Maintain the Quality of Lanzone (Lansium domesticum Corr.)Fruits

Laboratorium Hortikultura, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung, Bandar Lampung

Laboratorium Hortikultura, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung, Bandar Lampung Jalan Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1, Bandar Lampung 35145 E-mail: sewidodo@yahoo.com

Diterima 26 Januari 2005 / Disetuui 28 Mei 2005

To develop an active packaging of lanzone (Lansium domisticum Corr.) Fruits, KmnO4 as an ethylene scavenger and L-ascorbic acid as an oxygent scavenger were inserted into packaging. As direct contact of KmnO4 with agricultural product was not recommended and due to the liquid characteristic of both scavenger was carried out. This research was aimed at finding out the best adsorbers for KmnO4, L-ascorbic acid, and their combination in an active packaging to prolog the shelve-life and to maintain the quality of lanzone fruits. The result showed that 1) among the four adsorbers tested, pumice could was the best alternative as a KmnO4 or L-ascorbic acid adsorbers, and 2)) spon and pumice were the best alternative adsorber for the combination of KmnO4 or L-ascorbic acid. Both adsorber were effective in prolonging the shelve-live (8-11 days longer than with out packaging and as good as using silica gel and vermiculite) and maintaining the quality of lanzone fruits.

Key word: lanzone, duku, active packaging, KmnO4, L-ascorbic acid.

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MEKNISME DAN KINETIKA KUENSING KUERSETIN TERHADAP EFEK FOTOSENSITISASI PEWARNA MAKANAN SINTETIK ERITROSIN DALAM OKSIDASI MINYAK SAWIT

Mechanism and Kinetics of Quenching of Quercetin on Photosensitizing Effect of Synthetic Food Colorant Erythosine in Palm Oil Oxidation

Posman sibuea1), Sri Raharjo 2), Umar Santoso 3)

1) Dosen di jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian Unika St. Thomas Medan
2) Dosen Jurrusan Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian Fakultas
3)Teknologi Pertanian Universitasn Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta.

Diterima 20 Mei 2005 / Disetujui 29 Agustus 2005

The effect 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm (wt/vol) quercetin on the singlet oxygen oxidation of palm oil in methylene chloride containing 100 ppm erythrosine, were studied during storage under 400 lux fluorecent light for 5 h by measuring peroxide value. Steady-state kinetic approximation was used to determine the quenching mechanism and quenching rate constant of quercetin in the erythrosine-sensitized photo oxidation of palm oil. Erythrosine greatly increased the As photo oxidation of palm oil, as was expected. Quercetin was extremely effective at minimizing erythrosine-sensitized photo oxidation of palm oil. As the concentration of quercetin increased from 0 to 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm, the peroxide value of palm oils decreased significantly (p9 M-1 S-1.

Key words : quercetin, Erythrosine, photo sensitized oxidation, singlet oxygen, palm oils and quenching mechanism and kinetics.

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KOMPONEN ASAM ORGANIK TEMPOYAK

Organic acids component of Tempoyak

Neti Yuliana

Staf Pengajar pada Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Lampung

Diterima 12 Desember 2004 /Disetujui 11 April 2005

This study was mainly conducted to identify the of organic acids component of tempoyak. Acidity and pH changes during fermentation process of fermented tempoyak were also evaluated. The results revealed that there were significant changes in pH ranging from 7 to 4 and acidity (6 mg/g- 38 mg/g) attributed to organic acids present in tempoyak. These organic acids were malic acid (145,9 mg/ml), followed by lactic acid (34,1 mg/ml), and small amount of acetic acid (14,2mg/ml).

Key words: Tempoyak; organic acids; pH and acidity

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PRODUKSI PULLULAN DARI SUBSTRAT PATI SAGU OLEH Pullularia pullulans

The Pullulan Production From Substrate of Sagoo Starch By Pullularia pullulans

Dosis Undjung

Staf Pengajar Program Studi Pengolahan Hasil Pertanian, FAPERTA-UNPAR, Jl. Yos Sudarso Kampus UNPAR Tunjung Nyaho, Palangka Raya

Diterima 18 Januari 2005 /Disetujui 9 Juni 2005

The aim of this research was to recognize the potency of pullulan by Pullularia pullulans from hydrolyzed Sagoo starch as opposed to sucrose. Another objective was to find out a better condition for agitation of pullulan production in a batch fermentation.
Sagoo can be found in Kuala Kapuas, Central Kalimantan. Initially sago was made into sago starch. The Sago starch was then hydrolyzed to be used as substrate for pullulan production. As a comparison, sucrose was also used. Pullulan production was carried out by pullaria pullulans, T37A or CBS CYPP using various agitation rate & incubation period. The research showed that increase in agitation resulted in increase in pullulan production. At 100 rpm, the yield was 1.299 g/l while at 150 rpm yield was 1.546 g/l. Strain CBSCYPP also produced more pullulan than T 374.

Key words : Pullulan production, Sagoo starch and Pullularia pullulans

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PENGERINGAN KEMOREAKSI KULTUR Saccharomyces cerevisiae DENGAN CaO SERTA PENGARUH SORPSI KADAR AIR TERHADAP STRES DAN KEMATIAN KULTUR KERING

Chemoreaction Drying of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Culture with CaO and the Influence of Moisture Sorption Upon Stress and Death of the Dried Culture

Novelina1, Soewarno T. Soekarto2, Betty Sri Laksmi Jenie2, Susono Saono3, dan Maggy T. Suhartono2

1Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian UNAND Padang 2Program Studi Ilmu Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, IPB-Bogor 3Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, Cibinong

Diterima 28 Oktober 2004 / Disetujui 12 Juli 2005

The aim of the research was to study chemoreaction drying of Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture and to a analyze the influence of moisture sorption on pattern of viability, stress and mortality of the dried starter culture.
The cell culture of S. cerevisiae was produced in glucose media with aerobic process in a fermentor at 30C. The cell obtained was dried in a using chemoreaction process. Drying was conducted by coating with various thickness of coating and various ratio of CaO and calcium oxide ratio used in drying. Dry culture of S. cerevisiae and protective agent of CMC and jelly were added to the dry culture. The mixtrure then was stored at in decicators at R H 11 up to 97% until water equilibrium was achieved. Later the patterns of stress from each sample of dry culture at various conditions of moisture was analyzed.
The result of the research showed that the best drying method was using coat thickness of 1.3 mm and calcium oxide 10 times the weight of dried sample. The condition of dry culture at low minimal water from 5 % were mostly in dormant state, the highest viability was at the rate of moisture of 5 % – 8 %, but a lot portion of the cells were inactive, and at the moisture higher than 8%, dead cells were observed. Addition 2% jelly of 2% CMC did not protect cells from stress.

Key words: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, chemoreaction drying, moisture sorption, dry stresses

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STUDI PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN BIFIDOBAKTERIA TERHADAP FLAVOR YOGHURT

Study on the Effect of the Use of Bifidobacteria on Flavor of Yoghurt

Suryono1, Adi Sudono2, Mirnawati Sudarwanto3 , dan Anton Apriyantono4

1Staf Pengajar Fakultas Perternakan, Universitas Jambi 2Staf Pengajar Fakultas Peternakan, Institut Pertanian Bogor 3Staf Pengajar Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, Institut Pertanian Bogor 4Staf Pengajar Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian , Institut Pertanian Bogor

Diterima 4 November 2004 /Disetujui 19 Juli 2005

This experiment was carried out to study the effect of bifidobacteria on flavor of yoghurt. Parameters measured in the experiment were acidity, pH, viscosity, volatile composition, sensory acceptance and intensity of yoghurt sensory attributes.
Results of the experiment indicated that the use of bifidobacteria in mixture of yoghurt culture was able to increase the levels of acidity and viscosity of yoghurt. The highest acidity and viscosity was found in yoghurt prepared by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and bifidobacteria mixture, and also by Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and bifidobacteria mixture cultures. The major classes of volatile component identified were acids, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. The major component identified were octanoic acid, acetoin and octadecanal. It was found that there was no significant difference in sensory acceptance of the panelist for colour, aroma and taste of yoghurt prepared by the various combination of cultures. However, consistency of yoghurt prepared by S. thermophilus with or without addition of bifidobacteria, was less compared to that of others. Yoghurt prepared by single culture of S. thermophilus showed higher intensity of bitter and syneresis. The use of bifidobacteria in the cultures mixture decrease the intensity of bitter and syneresis of the yoghurt.

Keywords : Bifidobacteria, L. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus, flavor of yoghurt

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MEKANISME PRODUKSI MINYAK SEL TUNGGAL DENGAN SISTEM FERMENTASI PADAT PADA MEDIA ONGGOK-AMPAS TAHU DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KAPANG ASPERGILLUS TERREUS

The Production Mechanism of Single Cell Oil from Aspergillus terreus in a Solid Fermentation System Using a Mixture of Tapioca and Tofu Waste Media

Debby M. Sumanti, Carmencita Tjahjadi, Marleen Herudiyanto dan Tati Sukarti

Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian Fakultas Pertanian UNPAD Bandung

Diterima 20 Januari 2005 /Disetujui 8 Juli 2005

Fat is an important nutrient for health. Considering the ever-increasing annual demand for cooking oil as a result of the rapid increase in population new sources of poly-unsaturated fats must be searched for.
One potential source is the Single Cell Oil (SCO); production of SCO does not require vast areas of land, production time is relatively short and is not affected by enviromental conditions. Moreover, product synthesis and production volume can be easily controlled; Moreover, the tri-acyl-glyceral produced contain essential fatty acids, i.e linoleic and linolenic acid.
The objectives of this research was to study the influence of two mold strains of A. terreus and the C/N ratio of the growth medium consisting of cassava atarch and tofu processing waste on SCO production.
This research consisted of two parts. The first part was a study on keeping methods of pure cultures of A. terreus, preparation of starter cultures, isolation of mold from the starter culture and preparation of fermentation media. The second part of the research was fermentation of A. terreus strain FNOC 6039 and FNOC 6040 on solid media made of tapioca and tofu waste having C/N ratios of 25/1, 30/1, 35/1, 40/1 and 45/1. Post-fermentation observations on the growth medium slabs consisted of moisture, starch, total sugars and protein content and SCO production.
Both strain of A. terreus and C/N ratio affected moisture, starch, total sugars and protein content of the growth media. The A. terreus FNOC 6040 strain growth on a medium with C/N ratio of 45/1 was the most potential oil producer, i.e. 14,63% crude SCO. The oil was brownish yellow in color and has a slightly fishy aroma.

Keywords : Single Cell Oil, Solid Fermentation, Casava starch and Tofu Processing Waste, Aspergillus terreus mold strain.

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PENGARUH KADAR MINYAK TERHADAP EFEKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DALAM SISTEM EMULSI OIL-IN-WATER

The Effect of Oil Concentration on the Antioxidants Effectivity in Oil-In-Water Emulsion System

Feti Fatimah1 , Dedi Fardiaz2, Anton Apriyantono3, dan Nuri Andarwulan3

1Staf pengajar FIMIPA-UNSRAT, Manado 2Guru Besar FATETA-IPB, Bogor 3Staf Pengajar FATETA-IPB, Bogor

Diterima 22 Desember 2004 /Disetujui 11 April 2005

The oxidation of lipids in emulsified form is more complex than that in bulk lipids. In the emulsified form, there are more variables influencing lipid oxidation, including oil concentration, type and concentration of emulsifier, pH and buffer system. The aim of this research was to study the effect of corn oil concentration on antioxidant effectivity of Oil-In-Water emulsion system.
The effectiveness of antioxidants in the system were determined by Rancimat. Hydroperoxides content was also determined during five days of oxidation. The polarity of antioxidant was measured by determining the partition coefficient in octanol-water system (1:1). The partition coefficient of butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) was 10.19 (90.0%), -tocopherol was 8.44 (89.4%), t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) was 3.98 (79.9%), hydroquinone was 1.60 (61.5%), Trollox was 0.47 (32.0%) and gallic acid was 0.04 (4.4%).
The increase of oil proportion from 10% to 50% in emulsion system improved the oxidative stability of emulsion. The lower antioxidant polarity could increase the effectiveness of antioxidant in emulsion system with 10% corn oil proportion. The effectiveness of antioxidant was not absolutely depended on the order of polar paradox. The effectiveness was more influenced by its hydrogen donating capability and physicochemical properties of the emulsion system.

Key words: Antioxidant, emulsion, corn oil, polarity, partition coefficient polar paradox

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PENENTUAN WAKTU KADALUWARSA DAN MODEL SORPSI ISOTERMIS BIJI DAN BUBUK LADA HITAM (Piper ningrum L.)

Shelf Life Prediction and Isotherm Sorption Model of Dried Grain and Powdered Black Pepper (Piper ningrum L.)

Winiati. P. Rahayu1, M. Arpah1 dan Erika Diah2

1Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fateta-IPB 2Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB

Diterima 1 Februari 2005 /Disetujui 8 Juli 2005

Black pepper is one of the most popular spice traded around the globe, either in dried grain form or in bulky powder. However, for retailing purpose both are usually packaged in plastic film. This research was conducted to predict the shelf life of packaged black pepper (both dried grain and powder) by applying isotherm sorption and Labuza models. Initial moisture content of dried grain was 12.17 % d.b and for the powder was 10.27 % d.b. The shelf life of black pepper calculated for the dried grain was longer than the powder. When stored at 90 % RH, the dried grain black pepper packaged in HDPE demonstrated the longest shelf life which was equal to 2187 days and for the powder equal to 2037 days. The volatile oil loss for dried grain black pepper after 30 days of preservation was 1.36 % and for the powder was 40.82 %.

Key words: Black pepper, shelf life, plastic film.

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PENGARUH EKSTRAK ANDALIMAN (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC) TERHADAP PERMEABILITAS DAN HIDROFOBISITAS Bacillus cereus

Effect of Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC) Extracts upon Permeability and Hidrophobicity of Bacillus cereus

Adolf JN. Parhusip1, Betty Sri Laksmi Jenie2, Winiati Pudji Rahayu2 , Sedarnawati Yasni2

1Staf Pengajar pada Jurusan THP, FAPERTA Unika St. Thomas Medan 20123 2Staf Pengajar Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan FATETA-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002

Diterima 27 April 2005/ Disetujui 6 Juli 2005

Andaliman spice is usually added as one of main spices in cooked fish and meat. Andaliman seeds were extracted using maceration method with nonpolar, semipolar and polar solvents. The result showed that the three kinds of andaliman extract had antibacterial activity on Bacillus cereus, especially during exponential phase (8 hour incubation period). Ethyl-acetate extract of Andaliman showed the highest antibacterial activity toward B. cereus with MIC and MBC values being 0.2% and 0.8% respectively. The permeability of B. cereus was observed at the dose of 2.5 MIC and 60.30% hydrophobicity leakage was obtained at 6% andaliman extracted by ethyl-acetate.

Key words: Andaliman, extract, hydrophobicity, antibacterial, cell- leakage.

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PENGARUH KOMPOSISI LAPISAN PADA PERMUKAAN GLOBULA MINYAK EMULSI SEBELUM PENGERINGAN SEMPROT TERHADAP SIFAT-SIFAT MIKROKAPSUL TRIGLISERIDA KAYA ASAM LEMAK -3

The Effect of the Composition of Adsorbed Layer at Globule Interface of -3 Fatty Acids Enriched Triglyceride Prior to Spray Drying on its Microcapsule Properties

Teti Estiasih1, Moch. Adnan2, Tranggono2, dan Suparmo2

1Staf Pengajar Jurusan THP-FTP – Universitas Brawijaya 2Staf Pengajar Jurusan TPHP-FTP-UGM

Diterima 24 Desember 2004 /Disetujui 6 Juli 2005

Emulsification is the critical factor in microencapsulation by spray drying method. Sodium caseinate is a protein with good emulsifying properties. The properties could be improved by phospholipids addition in the emulsification. Phospholipids addition which stabilized oil globule might change the composition of adsorbed layer.
This research was conducted to analyze the changes in composition at oil globule interface by analyzing emulsion systems of triglyceride enriched by -3 fatty acids at 5% (w/v) stabilized by sodium caseinate (10% w/v) and addition of phospholipids at 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; and 2,5% (w/v). The changes in composition of adsorbed layer could be determined from the changes in phospholipids and adsorbed protein concentrations at oil globule interface. Analyses were done to measure the possibility of casein-phospholipids complex, phospholipids and protein adsorption concentration at interface, and adsorbed protein.
The increase of phospholipids concentration in the emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate changed the composition of adsorbed layer at interface. There was phospholipids increase and adsorbed protein decrease at oil globule interface. These changes were caused by casein-phospholipids complex which that decreased surface activity and displacement protein by phospholipids that was adsorbed at oil globule interface.
Changes of composition of casein-phospholipids at oil globule prior to microcapsulation process caused changes in the properties of microcapsule produced. The increasing phospholipids and decreasing casein concentrations at oil globule interface decreased the quality of the microcapsule, including decreasing in microencapsulation efficiency, in oxidative stability, and decreasing in EPA+DHA content.

Key words : Emulsification, microencapsulation, adsorbed layer, surface acitvity, displacement

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EKSTRAKSI DAN ANALISIS FITOSTEROL LEMBAGA GANDUM (Triticum sp.)

Extraction and analysis of Phytosterol from wheat germ (Triticum sp.)

Sri Anna Marliyati1, Hidayat Syarief1, Deddy Muchtadi2, Latifah K.Darusman3, dan Rimbawan1

1Staf Pengajar Departemen Gizi Masyarakat dan Sumberdaya Keluarga, Faperta IPB 2Staf Pengajar Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta IPB 3Staf Pengajar Departemen Kimia, F-MIPA IPB

Diterima 27 April 2005 /Disetujui 20 Juni 2005

Phytosterol may reduce the absorption of cholesterol, and used for preventing atherosclerosis. It is limited in soybean, but potentially abundant in wheat germ. Research on the utilization of wheat germ sterol had not been reported so far. Many aspects of germ sterol extraction from wheat germ and its characteristics were still unknown. In this research, the best extraction method, kinds and content of phytosterol from wheat germ were investigated.
This research consisted of two steps: (1) extraction of phytosterol directly form whole germ and ground germ using hexane, and indirect extraction through germ oil using hexane and mixed solvent of hexane and ethanol, and direct extraction from ground germ using ethanol; (2) analysis of the type and content of phytosterol in the crude extract through the following steps: preparation of crude extract, fractionation, and analysis.
Results showed that indirect extraction through germ oil was considered as the best method which yielded 1.37% of phytosterol. The highest yield was obtained when extracted using a mixed solvent of hexane – ethanol 82:18. However, the odor of ethanol and hexane (gasoline like odor) was still detected. The solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 resulted better odor of the extract. Extraction of sterol using ethanol yielded 18.39% of sterol when the ratio of germ to ethanol at 1:10 (w/v) was applied.
Results of quantitative analysis on the main component of crude extract of wheat germ sterol showed that the total content of sterol extracted with mixed solvent was higher than those extracted with ethanol. The ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:1 (v/v) gave higher content of total sterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, whereas higher content of -sitosterol was produced at the solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 (v/v).

Keywords: Wheat germ sterol, extraction, -sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol

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KAJIAN TEKNOLOGI EDIBLE COATING DARI PATI DAN APLIKASINYA UNTUK PENGEMAS PRIMER LEMPOK DURIAN

[Technological Assessment of Starch Edible Coating and Its Application on Primary Packaging of Durian Sweets]

Budi Santoso1, Daniel Saputra2, dan Rindit Pambayun2

1Alumni PS Agribisnis PPS UNSRI dan Dosen Jurusan Tekper UNSRI
2Dosen PS ABI PPS UNSRI dan Jurusan Tekper UNSRI

Diterima 9 November 2004 / Disetujui 23 Maret 2005

The study objective was to determine the shelf life of edible coating packaged of durian lempok. The experimental method used in this study was Factorial Randomized Block Design consisting of three factors. These factors were tapioca starch, stearate acid, and CMC. The edible coating solution was applied in to durian lempok by using dip method. The result showed that edible coating packaged of durian lempok could increase the durian lempok shelf life by 67 percent than durian lempok without edible coating. The edible coating was capable of decreasing the durian lempok weight loss by magnitude of 36.38% during storage, decreasing the peroxide number by magnitude of 33.33%, decreasing the water content by magnitude of 7.54%, and suppressing the microbial growth by the amount of 31.20%, respectively. Visual change of non-coating lempok had occurred on the day of 19th, which was indicated by greyish-white colour change due to certain type of mold on lempok surface, while the similar change happened at day of 31th (T2A3C3 treatment).

Key words : Tapioca, CMC, stearate acid, and edible coating.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYTASES FROM SOYBEANS AND MICROORGANISMS INVOLVED IN THE TEMPE PRODUCTION

CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYTASES FROM SOYBEANS AND MICROORGANISMS INVOLVED IN THE TEMPE PRODUCTION

Sutardi1 and K.A. Buckle2

1Lecturer, Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta
2Professor Department of Food Science and Technology, The University of New South Wales, PO Box 1, Kensington, NSW 2052 Australia.

Diterima 4 Oktober 2004 / Disetujui 21 Maret 2005

Tempe was prepared from Forest variety of soybeans inoculated with pure culture of the mould Rhizopus oligosporus strain CT11K2. Partially purified phytases from soybeans, mould of the R. oligosporus strain CT11K2, yeasts (Endomycopsis burtonii, Candida diddensiae and Candida tropicalis) and bacteria (Streptococcus faecium and Streptococcus dysgalactiae) involved during tempe production were prepared according to procedure developed by Sutardi (1988). The crude phytases were characterized and phytic acid, inorganic and total phosphorous content of soybeans, intermediate products and tempe, were also determined.

Results show that phytases, produced by microorganisms involved in tempe production, and by endogenous soybean phytase, had significantly different characteristics especially on optimum pH, temperature and substrate, Km and Vmax values, inactivation and activation energy and also temperature coefficient. All phytases contribute to the reduction in phytic acid content; and mould phytase, especially the extra-cellular enzyme, and the endogenous soybean phytase, showed the dominant effect on phytic acid degradation compared with other microbial phytases and physical treatments such as soaking, boiling and steaming.
Phytic acid content of soybeans was reduced by more than 50% from about 10.4 to about 4.9 – 5.0 mg/g (DWB) in fresh tempe (after 40 h fermentation at 30oC).

Key words: Characteristics, pytase, soybeans, microorganisms, tempe.

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FORTIFIKASI IODIUM DALAM GULA KELAPA : PENGARUH SAAT FORTIFIKASI DAN SUMBER IODIUM

[Iodine Fortification on Brown Sugar : The Effect of Fortification Period and Source of Iodine]

Rifda Naufalin, Budi Sustriawan, dan Poppy Arsil

Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian Fakultas Pertanian UNSOED

Diterima 15 Agustus 2004 / Disetujui 3 Maret 2005

Gula kelapa is a traditional and potencial comodity in Banyumas. Fortification with iodium in gula kelapa should be criteria were iodium in product over than 30 ppm bk. Fortification process was need a long thermal process. Stability of iodium in gula kelapa has been studied. The experimental method used Randomized Block Design. The factors analyzed were three kinds of fortification (fresh nira, nira prosessed, nira cristalization) and four kinds of iodium (control, NaI, KI, and KIO3) with 3 replications, and total were 36 unit. The result of the research showed that fortification when nira after endpoint with kalium iodida is the best interaction, iodium content is 34,89 ppm db.

Key words : Brown sugar, fortification, iodine

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PENGARUH PEMBERIAN GULA MERAH DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP KADAR GIZI DAN RASA TELUR ITIK ASIN

[The Effect of Palm Sugar and Storage on Nutrient Content and Taste of Salted Duck’s Egg]

Yenni Yusriani

Staf Peneliti Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian, NAD

Diterima 14 Juli 2004 / Disetujui 15 Maret 2005

This research used 150 duck eggs age one as subject day. There were two factors analyzed here. The first was the amount of palm sugar which consisted of 25 grams, 50 grams, and 75 grams. The second factor were the storage duration which consisted of 3, 4, and 5 weeks. The nutrient content parameters measured were rates protein, fat and ash content. Sensory quality parameters measured were color and taste. The analysis showed that in processing/making salted duck egg, palm sugar addition influenced protein content significantly (Fc ===================================================================== 7,0 > Ftab ===================================================================== 4,5) fat content ( Fc 67,3 > Ftab===================================================================== 8,7) and ash content (Fc ===================================================================== 64,6 > F tab ===================================================================== 8,7) very significantly. However, organoleptic test showed that palm sugar addition did not influenced color and taste of salted duck egg significantly. Storage duration influenced protein content significantly (Fc===================================================================== 6,9 F tab ===================================================================== 8,7) but did not significantly influenced ash content (Fc ===================================================================== 3,5 , dan Fanie Herdiani 2)

1)Staf Pengajar di Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002
2)Alumni Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002

Diterima 6 Januari 2004 / Disetujui 24 Mei 2004

Indonesia is known as a country rich in species of seaweed. The most important components of seaweed are iodine and dietary fiber. Eucheuma cottoni is one species of seaweed that can be used as a source of iodine and dietary fiber. Iodine deficiency can cause several diseases also known as IDD (Iodine Deficiency Disorder), while deficiency of dietary fiber can cause some degenerative diseases. This research is taken to develop the utilization of Eucheuma cottoni as an ingredient in the making of jam and “dodol” (Indonesian traditional snack food).
The best ratio of seaweed and sugar for jam production was 37:63, while the best ratio of seaweed and glutinous flour in making dodol was 5:2. The addition of seaweed on jam and dodol formula increased their iodine and dietary fiber contents. The iodine content of jam and dodol was 17.79 and 19.57 µg/g, respectively. The dietary fiber content of jam and dodol was 5.75 and 5.63%, respectively.

Key words : Disorder, dietary fiber, dodol, jam, seaweed

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PRODUKSI YOGHURT SHITAKE (YOSHITAKE) SEBAGAI PANGAN KESEHATAN BERBASIS SUSU

[Production of Yoghurt Shiitake (Yoshitake) as a Dairy-Based Nutraceutical Food]

Indratininingsih 1), Widodo 1), Siti Isrima Oktavia Salasia 2), dan Endang Wahyuni 1)

1)Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Ternak, Fakultas Peternakan UGM, Jl. Agro Karangmalang-Yogyakarta 55281
2)Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan UGM-Yogyakarta 55281

Diterima 31 Desember 2003 / Disetujui 21 Mei 2004

The objective of this project was to produce shiitake-containing yoghurts as nutraceutical food. Preliminary analysis was conducted to measure nutrient contents of shiitake followed by evaluation of shiitake’s addition on the growth of yoghurt bacteria and probiotics. Yoghurt fermentation was conducted at 420C until pH reached 4.5. Culture starter used were Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus casei with proportion of 1:1:1. During fermentation, acidification rate, pH, titratable acidity, total of yoghurt bacteria, total of probiotics, and concentration of lentinan in the products were measured. The result showed that shiitake powder contains crude protein (22.35%), starch (16,66%), fat (11,56%), ash (7.73%), dry matter (87.57%), dietary fibre (33.35%) and unsoluble dietary fibre (5.45%).
The result also showed that supplementation of 4% shiitake powder support the growth of probiotics L. casei and resulting in growth optimum at 1.26 x 109 cells/ml and 2.86 x 109 cells/ml after incubation of 6 and 10 hours respectively. Time needed to reach pH 4.5 of yoghurt supplemented with 4% shiitake powder was achieved after 7 hours of incubation as compared to 8 hours for the unsupplemented one. Total number of probiotics after fermentation of yoghurt with 4% shiitake was higher (7.16 x 109 cells/ml) as compared to the control at 5.3 x 109 cells/ml. Lentinan analysis in yoghurt showed that supplementation 4% of shiitake powder resulted in the highest lentinan accumulation at 22.8% compared with 2.3% for control and 2.9% for 2% shiitake supplementation. It can be concluded that yoghurt shiitake could be applied as nutrient food due to its high nutritious and lentinan content in the product.

Key words : Yoghurt, shiitake, nutraceutical food

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AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA PADA SUSU KUDA SUMBAWA

[Antimicrobial Activity of the Sumbawa Mare Milk]

Hermawati 1), Sudarwanto, M 2), Soekarto, S.T. 3), Zakaria, F.R. 3), Sudardjat, S 4), dan Tjatur Rasa F.S. 5)

1)Balai Pengujian Mutu Produk Peternakan, Direktorat Jenderal Bina Produksi Peternakan, Departemen Pertanian
2)Staf Pengajar Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan-IPB, Jl. Agatis Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor
3)Staf Pengajar Departemen Teknologi Pangan da Gizi, FATETA-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002
4)Direktorat Jenderal Bina Produksi Peternakan, Departemen Pertanian
5)Balai Pengujian Mutu dan Sertifikasi Obat Hewan

Diterima 10 Januari 2004 / Disetujui 28 April 2004

The research objectives where to verify the antimicrobial activity of mare milk from Sumbawa island and to further study the characteristics of the antimicrobial compound. The experiments were conducted involving 115 milk samples of Sumbawa mare and three different groups of control milk i.e. from 20 milk samples of working/ cart mares from Java, 2 samples of racing mares from Tangerang horse farm and 15 samples of dairy cows from Bogor.
The results concluded that all milk samples of Sumbawa mares contained strong antimicrobial activity as tested to 9 species of bacteria. All control samples did not show antimicrobial activity, except milk samples from racing mares which showed low antibacterial activity. The racing mares were then indentified as crossbred between male Thoroughbred and female Sumbawa horse. This finding supports and suggests that the native Sumbawa horses have genetic potential to the antimicrobial activity in their milk produced. Polarity tests using 5 organic solvents of different polarity indicated that the antimicrobial activity compound was very polar but had lower polarity than water. The bioactive coumpound did not dissolve in non polar hexane but strongly dissolved in the polar methanol solvent.

Key words : Mare milk, Sumbawa horses, antimicrobial activity, milk protein.

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IDENTIFIKASI CHARACTER IMPACT ODORANTS BUAH KAWISTA (Feronia Limonia)

[Identification of Character Impact Odorants of Wood Apple Fruit (Feronia Limonia)]

Anton Apriyantono 1), dan Bakti Kumara 2)

1)Staf Pengajar Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002
2)Alumni Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002

Diterima 1 Januari 2004 / Disetujui 25 Maret 2004

The volatiles of the kawista fruit (wood apple) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and a combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Character impact odorants of the fruits were systematically characterized by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) with GC-Olfactometry (GC-O). A total of 75 compounds were identified, including 28 esters, 11 alcohols, 10 aldehydes, 1 acetal, 10 ketones, 4 lactones, 1 heterocyclic, 4 aliphatic hydrocarbons, 1 furan and 5 acids. However, only 44 volatiles were detected by GC-O. Among these, compounds with the most impact were ethyl butyrate (fruity, sweet, banan-like)and methyl butyrate (fruit, sour) with a flavor dilution factor of 256 and 64, respectively. Based on AEDA results, butyric acid, 3-mathyl valeric acid, 1-octen-3-ol, pentyl isobutyrate, 2-ethyl hexanoic acid, ethyl octanoate, gamma-decalactone, 2,3-pentanedione, 3-octanone, 5-methyl-3-heptanone, 9-methyl-5-undecene and (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate seem to contribute to kawista fruit flavor. Key words : Character impact compounds, GC-MS, GC-Olfactometry, AEDA, Feronia limonia

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RESPONS HORMONAL-IMUNITAS WANITA PREMENOPAUSE YANG DIINTERVENSI MINUMAN FUNGSIONAL BERBASIS SUSU SKIM YANG DISUPLEMENTASI DENGAN 100 mg ISOFLAVON KEDELAI DAN 8 mg Zn-sulfat (SUSUMENO)

[Hormone-Immunity Response of Premenopausal Women Intervened with Skim Milk Based Functional Drink Supplemented with 100 mg Soy Isoflavone and 8 mg Zn-sulfate (Susumeno)]

H. Winarsi 1), D. Muchtadi 2), F.R. Zakaria 2), dan B. Purwantara 3)

1)Staf Pengajar Fak. Biologi UNSOED Purwokerto, Jl. DR. Soeparno Karangwangkal, Purwokerto 53123
2)Staf Pengajar Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002
3)Staf Pengajar Departemen Reproduksi Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan-IPB, Jl. Agatis Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor

Diterima 20 November 2003 / Disetujui 28 April 2004

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intervention of skim milk based functional drink supplemented with 100 mg of soy isoflavone and 8 mg of Zn-sulfate (susumeno) on serum estradiol and thymulin hormones levels of permenopausal women. After 2 month of intervention, the estradiol levels did not change, and the levels were in the range of 39,16 – 41,99 pg/ml. However the thymulin hormone levels increased significantly from 2,37 µg/ml to 3,31 µg/ml. Increase in thymulin levels shows that the disfuction of immune system of premenopausal could be improved by the functional drink. Key words : Estradiol, thymulin, soy isoflavone, Zn, premenopausal women.

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PENENTUAN KADAR IODIDA DAN IODAT DALAM GARAM BERIODIUM DENGAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KINERJA TINGGI PASANGAN ION

[Determination of Iodate and Iodide Content in Iodized Salt By Ion Pair High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method]

Wisnu Cahyadi 1), Kurnia Firman 2), Slamet Ibrahim 2), dan Embit Kartadarma 2)

1)Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknologi Pangan Fakultas Teknik Universitas Pasundan Bandung, Jl. Setiabudhi N. 193 Bandung 40153
2)Staf Pengajar Departemen Farmasi FMIPA Institut Teknologi Bandung

Diterima 9 Desember 2003 / Disetujui 21 April 2004

Two species of iodine, i.e. iodide and iodate in commercial iodized salt were determined using ion pair HPLC. From 15 samples analysed, the iodide and iodate content ranged from 24,05 ± 2,51 to 70,25 ± 3,78 ppm and from 31,43 ± 8,10 to 87,59 ± 0,44 ppm, respectively. The method used was found satisfactory in terms of precission, accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity, therefore the method seem acceptable for the determination of iodide and iodate content in iodized salt samples.

Key words : Iodine species, determination of iodine species content, and ion-pair HPLC

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PENENTUAN KADAR IODIDA DAN IODAT DALAM GARAM BERIODIUM DENGAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KINERJA TINGGI PASANGAN ION

[Determination of Iodate and Iodide Content in Iodized Salt By Ion Pair High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method]

Wisnu Cahyadi 1), Kurnia Firman 2), Slamet Ibrahim 2), dan Embit Kartadarma 2)

1)Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknologi Pangan Fakultas Teknik Universitas Pasundan Bandung, Jl. Setiabudhi N. 193 Bandung 40153
2)Staf Pengajar Departemen Farmasi FMIPA Institut Teknologi Bandung

Diterima 9 Desember 2003 / Disetujui 21 April 2004

Two species of iodine, i.e. iodide and iodate in commercial iodized salt were determined using ion pair HPLC. From 15 samples analysed, the iodide and iodate content ranged from 24,05 ± 2,51 to 70,25 ± 3,78 ppm and from 31,43 ± 8,10 to 87,59 ± 0,44 ppm, respectively. The method used was found satisfactory in terms of precission, accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity, therefore the method seem acceptable for the determination of iodide and iodate content in iodized salt samples.

Key words : Iodine species, determination of iodine species content, and ion-pair HPLC

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PRODUKSI PIGMEN ANGKAK OLEH MONASCUS

[Production of Angkak Pigments by (Monascus)

K.H. Timotius

Lab. Kimia dan Biokimia Hasil Pertanian Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana , Jl. Dipenogoro No. 52-60, Salatiga 50711

Diterima 5 Maret 2004 / Disetujui 10 Mei 2004

Monascus is one of the important molds for producing food colorants. Monascus produces non polar, semi polar, as well as polar food colorants and brown, red or yellow poliketide pigments. The production is usually done under solid state system, but various submerged system have been develop. Immobilized system showed prospective results. The pigments production is influenced by the availability of carbon and nitrogen sources, humidity, temperature, pH, and aeration. Poliketide pigments are used as food colorant in animal products, beverages, yoghurt, nata de coco, and daily home cooking practices. The stability of the pigments is influenced by temperature (various heating treatments), pH (acidity), oxygen, water activity, and light. Beside pigments, Monascus also produces various non-pigment metabolites, such as citrinin (a nephrotoxic agent), lavostatin (a hypocholesteremic agent), a monascidin (an antibacterial agent).

Key word : Angkak, Monascus purpureus, natural pigment, polikatide pigment

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KARAKTERISTIK SPEKTROSKOPI ISOLAT KOMPONEN ANTIBAKTERI BIJI ATUNG (Parinarium glaberrimum Hassk)

[Spectroscopic Characteristics of Antibacterial Component of Atung (Parinarium glaberrimum Hassk) Seeds]

Murhadi 1), Soewarno T.S. 2), Betty S.L. Jennie 2), Anton Apriyantono 2), dan Sedarnawati Yasni 2)

1)Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian (THP), Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Lampung (Unila)
2)Staf Pengajar Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002

Relative purity assay on antibacterial components (isolates) of “atung” seeds using HPLC system (linier gradient of water-methanol, detection on UV at 280/254 nm) showed that the isolate-9 had the highest purity (94%), followed by isolate-6 (69%), isolate-7 (66%), and isolate-12 (66%) respectively; while the other isolates only had 50% of purity. The UV-Visible spectrophotometer analysis on the isolate-9, showed that the λmax (in methanol) were at 213 and 269 nm. From IR spectrum of the isolate, no more information can be obtained except the presence of C-H stretching. Furthermore, the MS spectrum showed that the fragment ion series of 44 (100%), 57, 69, 83, 97, 115, maybe predicted as aliphatic amine compounds.
Key word : Relative purity, methanol, C-H Stretching, fragment ion series, aliphatic amine compounds.

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PENGGUNAAN GETAH PAPAYA DALAM SINTESIS ESTER XILITOL ASAM LEMAK (EXAL)

[The Use of Papaya Exudates for Fatty Acid Xilitol Synthesis]

Suhardi

Staf Pengajar FATETA-UGM, Jl. Sosio Yustisia Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281

Diterima 23 September 2002 / Disetujui 10 November 2003

Fatty acid xylitol-ester (FAXILE) are xylitol esters of fatty acids with one to five DE (degree of esterification) value. FAXILE with DE value of 3 or higher can be used as low calorie fat replacer since they have low digestive property; while the xylitol ester with DE of less than 3 can be used as emulsifier. The FAXILE synthesis experiments were carried out by esterification of xylitol with palm oil¡¦s fatty acid (POFA) using papaya exudates as a lipase source. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential of papaya exuadates for the synthesis of FAXILE. In this first experiment, test were carried out to determine hydrolytic activity of lipases obtained from different part of papaya plant. The test, were performed with the presence of CaO and under different pH value. The papaya exudates were used for FAXILE synthesis under an optimum condition obtained from the first experiment. Samples were drawn during incubation at 40„aC for 1,2,3, and 4 days and hydroxyl number was analyzed to confirm the ester formation. The results showed that the most active exudate was from papaya leaves, followed by exudates from fruit with hydrolytic activity of 653 and 296 ƒ�mol/g. minutes, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of the fruit exudate was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45-50„aC, with the addition of CaO 4% dry exudates. The FAXILE synthesis with acid of papaya exudates was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45„aC with molar ratio of xylitol: fatty acids was 1 to 6,3 days incubation. At this condition the conversion rate xylitol to FAXILE was 79%.

Key words : Papaya exudates, ester of xylitol-fatty acid, FAXILE, POFA (Fatty acid xylitol ester)

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KARAKTERISTIK FISIK, KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN UJI ORGANOLEPTIK TELUR AYAM MERAWANG DENGAN PEMBERIAN PAKAN BERSUPLEMEN OMEGA-3

[Physical Characteristic, Chemical Composition and Organoleptic Test of Merawang Chicken Egg Fed with Omega-3 Supplementation Diet]

Iman Rahayu HS

Staf Pengajar Jurusan Ilmu Produksi Ternak, FAPET-IPB, Jl. Rasamala Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor

Diterima 20 Maret 2003 / Disetujui 15 Agustus 2003

Chicken egg is a good quality animal protein source. The quality of the egg can be improved with spesific feeding, such as omega-3 supplemented diet. Merawang chicken is one of local Indonesian chicken domesticated at Bangka Island, South Sumatera, and popular as a layer bird. The aim of this research was to study the effect of omega-3 supplementation on the physical characteristic, chemical composition and organoleptic test of Merawang chicken eggs. One hundred and thirty six eggs (73 eggs were control and 63 eggs was omega-3 suplemented) were collected from 64 Merawang chicken for eleven weeks. Feeding were arranged isonitrogenous (15.8%) and isocaloric (2650 kkal/kg), and fed ad libitum. Omega-3 feeding was produced from fermentation of soybean waste (ampas tahu) and mold (Rhizopus oligosporus), then mixed with sea fish oil waste (1:1, w/w). The result showed that no significant effect of the treatment on physical characteristic parameter. Omega-3 eggs significantly (PPS Teknologi Pangan, Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian, Politeknik Pertanian Negeri Bandar Lampung
Jln. Soekarno Hatta Rajabasa-Bandar Lampung, Telp. (0721) 703995 Fax (0721) 787309
2Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002

Diterima 23 September 2002/Disetujui 22 April 2003

This research was aimed at characterization of maltodextrin DP 3-9 (produced by enzymatic hydrolysis and membrane separation process) as compared to commercial maltodextrin and glucose and assessment of its potential application as carbohydrate source in sport drink. The research showed that application of maltodextrin DP 3-9 had some advantages as compared to glucose with regard to absorption rate that was 2 times longer (60 minutes instead of 30 minutes), osmolality degree that was 5,6 times lower (178 mOsmol/kg as compared to 1000 mOsmol/kg), and relative sweetness degree that was 10 – 11 times lower (6,15-7,20 as compared to 57,00-61,00). However, thie application of maltodekstrin DP 3-9 had limitation which was shown by its viscosity characteristic that was 5,70 — 6,20% higher (1,29 cSt and 1,37 cSt as compared to 1,22 cSt and 1,29 cSt). When compared to commercial maltodextrin, maltodextrin DP 3-9 is favorable as carbohydrate source in sport drink based on its absorption rate that was more than 2 times faster (60 minutes as compared to more than 120 minutes) and storage stability at refrigeration temperature (which was more than 8 weeks, with or without sterilization; with sterilization).

Key words : Maltodextrin DP 3-9, carbohydrate source and sport drink

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KINETIKA PERTUMBUHAN Lactobacillus plantarum dan Lactobacillus sp. PADA MEDIA MRS CAIR

[Growth Kinetics of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sp. in MRS Medium]

Yoyok B. Pramono1 , Eni Harmayani2 , dan Tyas Utami2

1Program Studi Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Pasca Sarjana Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281. E-mail : yok_bp@hehe.com
2Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, FTP Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281.

Diterima 23 September 2002/Disetujui 17 April 2003

Lactobacillus plantarum FNCC 250 and Lactobacillus sp. FNCC 401 were isolated from traditional fermented food which had potential properties as probiotic agents and to reduce cholesterol. The aim of the research was to study the growth kinetics of Lactobacillus plantarum FNCC 250 and Lactobacillus sp. FNCC 401 at MRS medium, using glucose a substrate limiting factor. Cells were inoculated into MRS medium containing glucose concentration of 0.05 ; 0.1 ; 0.2 ; 0.3 ; 0.5 ; 1 ; 1.5 ; 2 ; and 3 % (w/v). Fermentation was carried out at 37oC, with initial pH 6.8 and was monitored for 24 hours. During the fermentation, dry cell weight, reducing sugar and pH were analysed. The results showed that Ks ( the substrate saturation constant) of Lactobacillus plantarum FNCC 250 was 0.04 (g.l-1) ; ì max (the maximum growth rate) was 0.17 (h-1) ; and Y (growth yield) was 0.24 ( g.g-1), meanwhile for Lactobacillus sp. FNCC 401 Ks was 0.06 (g.l-1), ì max was 0.26 (h -1) ; and Y (growth yield) was 0.24 ( g.g -1).

Key words : Fermentation, growth kinetics, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus sp.

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PENGEMBANGAN PRODUK AGROINDUSTRI JAMU DAN ANALISIS STRUKTUR KELEMBAGAANNYA

[Jamu Industry Products Development and Their Instutional Structure Analysis]

Kusnandar1 , dan Marimin2

1Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Sebelas Maret , Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Solo 57126
2Jurusan Teknologi Industri Pertanian, FATETA, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002

Diterima 10 Oktober 2002/Disetujui 26 Februari 2003

Indonesia is a rich country for many kinds of medicinal plants which become important raw material for jamu industry development. This paper discusses jamu industry products selection and institutional structure analysis for the jamu industry development. The result of products selection using “fuzzy non numeric decision making technique� shows that powder jamu is the best product to be developed and institutional structure analysis using “interpretative structural modelling technique� shows that municipal goverment is the institution which has strongest driver power for jamu industry development.

Key words : Interpretative structural modelling, jamu industry, and decision making

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AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK BUAH ANDALIMAN (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC) DALAM BEBERAPA SISTEM PANGAN DAN KESTABILAN AKTIVITASNYA TERHADAP KONDISI SUHU DAN pH

[Antioxidative Activity of Andaliman Fruit Extract (Z. acanthopodium DC.) on Several Food System and its Antioxidative Stability on Temperature and pH Influence]

Tensiska1 , C. Hanny Wijaya2 , dan Nuri Andarwulan2

1Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian, FAPERTA, Universitas Padjajaran, Jl. Dipati Ukur No. 35 Bandung
2Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA , Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002

Diterima 10 September 2002/Disetujui 13 Maret 2003

The extraction of the andaliman fruit was conducted by using ethanol, and hexane. The hexane residue was reextracted by ethanol. The protection factor of the extracts is 3.823, 1.486, and 3.84 respectively. While the protection factor of BHT is 2.828. The research shows that andaliman fruit extract has the highest antioxidative activity on aqueous system. While in emulsion and oily system, andaliman extract still have a moderate activity. The antioxidative activity is relatively stabile during heating. Heating up to 175„aC in aqueous system for 2 hours is merely reduce the activity to 17%. The protection effect increase during the increasing of pH (examined at pH 3,4,5,6, and 7), except at pH 4.
Key words : Andaliman, antioxidative activity, heating, and pH.

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FENOMENA HISTERESIS ISOTERMI SORPSI AIR PADA GRANULA PATI AMILOSA GRANULA PATI AMILOPEKTIN, PROTEIN, DAN SELULOSA

[Hysteresis Phenomena of Moisture Sorption Isotherm in Amylose, Amylopectin, Protein, and Cellulose]

Nur Wulandari1, dan Soewarno T. Soekarto1

1Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002

Diterima 25 September 2002/Disetujui 13 Maret 2003

Hysteresis phenomena of four basic food compounds (amylose, amylopectin, casein, and cellulose) were studied after 9 days equilibration in descicators at 28oC. Adsorption experiments started from 2% moisture content and desorption from wetted samples with excessive moisture. In starch and protein, the hysteresis occurred in the middle range of the sorption isotherm in the range of 10 – 90% RH and no hysteresis at the lowest and highest ranges of RH. While in cellulose hysteresis started at about 10% RH and was increasing to the saturated RH.
Analyses of stratified bound water using sorption isotherm data revealed that from the four samples, the desorption monolayer and secondary bound water fractions were higher than those of adsorption. However, the tertiary bound water fractions of desorption were lower than those of adsorption, except from the cellulose sample

. Key words : Hysteresis, isotherm, starch, protein, and cellulose

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INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIS PALM STEARIN DAN MINYAK IKAN LEMURU UNTUK MEMBUAT LEMAK MARGARIN

[Enzymatic Interesterification of Palm Stearin and Sardine oil to Produce Margarine-fat]

Pudji Hastuti1, dan Tyas Utami1

1Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada-Yogyakarta, Jl. Sosio Yustisia Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281

Diterima 23 September 2002/Disetujui 21 April 2003

Enzymatic interesterification of Palm Stearin (PS) and Sardine Oil (SO) as source of Eicosa Pentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosa Hexaenoic Acid (DHA) have been of interest to modify the physical properties of the triglyceride. An attempt to enzymatic-restructure PS and SO to form Structured Lipid (SL) which is suitable for margarine was investigated using immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and that from Candida antartica.
The effect of reaction time course, ratio of PS/SO and ratio of enzyme/substrate were studied in the present study. At the end of interesterification, the enzyme was filtered from the reaction mixture through a filter paper. The Solid Fat Index (SFI) was determined by dillatometry. The Slip Melting Point (SMP) was determined by capillary tube method.
Both of interesterification catalyzed by immobilized sn 1,3 specific lipase from R.miehei,and non specific lipase from C.antartica were found to decrease the SFI value at 10; 21.1 and 33.30C. The SMP value was decrease from 58-500C to 37-390C. The change of these parameters were slightly faster in the reaction which catalyzed by lipase from R miehei than lipase from C.antartica . The more the utilization of the enzyme the faster the change were occurred, especially the increase of enzyme utilization from 2.5% to 5%, which decrease the SFI value at 33,30C. The decrease of the PS/SO ratio resulted in the decrease of SFI and SMP values. It was found that the most suitable SFI and SMP value for margarine fat is the SL formed by carrying out the enzymatic-interesterification of PS/SO with the ratio of 40/60 using enzyme 2.5% of the total fat, for 8 hours at 600C

. Key words : Palm stearin, sardine oil, enzymatic-interesterification, solid fat index and slip melting point

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PENGARUH JENIS LARUTAN PERENDAM SERTA METODE PENGERINGAN TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK, KIMIA, DAN FUNGSIONAL GELATIN DARI KULIT CUCUT

[The Influence of Solvent Variety and Drying Method on Physical, Chemical and Functional Characteristic of Shark Skin Gelatin]

Made Astawan1 , dan Tita Aviana2

1Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002
2Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002

Diterima 23 September 2002/Disetujui 16 April 2003

Gelatin is a denaturation product of collagen and has been widely utilized for foods, photography uses, medical materials, and culture materials for microorganisms. Recently, gelatin’s uses has expanded to new applications such as health foods. Gelatin of land animal origin such as bovine and porcine has been mainly used. However, gelatin with new properties is desired to develop expanded applications. In this research gelatin was made from shark skin. The shark skin collagen was distended by acetic acid solution (acid process) and sodium hydroxide solution (alkali process), and gelatin was then extracted at 80oC of water. The extracted gelatin was dried by vacuum drying and freeze drying to obtain powder product. Shark gelatin produced by the combination of alkali and vacuum drying process (OVB gelatin) had better qualities on yield, water content, gel strength, melting point, and emulsion stability as compared to the others. Sensory evaluation indicated that shark gelatin had lower values in color, odor, and performance as compared to the commercial gelatin of fish, pig and bovine (SKW Biosystem). However, as compared to the commercial gelatins, OVB gelatin had a similar values on gel strength (202 bloom) and emulsion stability (100%), but higher values on viscosity (8 cP) and pH (9.3). Those values indicated that ray skin gelatin can be used to substitute the commercial gelatin in some food industries

Key words: Gelatin, shark, melting point, and emulsion stability

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SINTESIS XILITOL POLIESTER MENGGUNAKAN DESTILAT ASAM LEMAK MINYAK SAWIT

[Synthesis of Xylitol-Polyester from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate(PFAD)]

Suhardi1, Tranggono1, dan Amanda Hardiyani SN2

1Staf pengajar Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian , Universitas Gajah Mada ¡V Yogyakarta Jl. Sosio Yustisia Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
2Alumni Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian , Universitas Gajah Mada ¡V Yogyakarta Jl. Sosio Yustisia Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281

Diterima 23 November 2001 /Disetujui 28 April 2003

This study of xylitol-polyester synthesis was carried out using palm fatty acid distillate as the a source fatty acids. The objective of this study was to obtain the optimum condition with regard to reaction kinetis during synthesis. In the experiment, temperatures were varied at 110, 120, 130, 140 and 150oC; while during reactions samples were drawn at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours for determination of hydroxil value. Results showed that the optimum condition for synthesis was found at 145„b2.5oC for 3.5„b0.5 hours. It was noted, that the reaction was reversible, first order with the activation energy 4475.57 cal/mol for synthesis and 4499.21 cal/mol for hydrolisis.

Key words : Xylitol-polyester, palm fatty acid distillate.

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PENGARUH DIET KACANG MERAH TERHADAP KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS DIABETIK INDUKSI ALLOXAN

[Effect of Red Bean Diet on Blood Glucose Concentration of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats]

Y. Marsono1, Zuheid Noor1, dan Fitri Rahmawati2

1Staf Pengajar Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian –UGM, Jl. Susio Yustisia, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
2Staf Pengajar P. S. Tata Boga Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Negeri – Yogyakarta

Diterima 23 September 2002/Disetujui 13 Maret 2003

Hypoglycemic response of red bean were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of red bean (Vigna umbellata) diet compare with soy bean diet on blood glucose concentration in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (250-300 g) were diabetic induced by alloxan injection (80 mg/kg of body weight by intra muscular injection). They were divided into three groups of ten rats. They were fed (1) Standard diet (STD), (2) Red bean diet (KM), and (3) Soy bean diet (KD) for 28 days. Concentration of serum glucose were determined before injection (0 day),after injection (day 17th) and every sweek during diet intervention (day 24,31,38 and 45th)
It was found that alloxan injection increased serum glucose concentration of STD, KM, and KD rats. After 28 days intervention, red bean decreased the serum glucose concentration from 217, 87 mg/dL to 57,70 mg/dL (69 %) in KM groups and from 218,94 mg/dL to 76,82 mg/dL (65 %) in KD groups, but standard diet (STD) were decreased less than both of KM and KD diet.

Key words : Diabetic, alloxan-induced, hypoglicemic, red bean, and soy bean

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PENGARUH RASIO UBI KAYU DENGAN KELAPA PARUT DAN LAMA PENGUKUSAN TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK JONGKONG UBI SELAMA PENYIMPANAN

Effects of the Ratio of Cassava and Grated Coconut and Steaming Time on Shelf-life Characterictics of Jongkong Ubi

Putu Yuni Puspitawati1, I Ketut Suter1, dan I. N. Kencana Putra1

1Bagian Teknologi Hasil Pertanian Program Studi Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Udayana

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of cassava and grated coconut ratio and steaming time to thesome quality characteristic of jongkong ubi during storage, as well as,obtain the right ratio of the cassava and grated coconut and steaming time to produce jongkong ubi good shelflife properties.

This experiment used randomized block design with two factors and two replications. The first factor was weight ratio of the cassava and grated coconut which consist of three level that were 4:1, 6:1, 8:1, and the second factor was steaming time which consist of three level that were 60, 90 and 120 minutes.

The result of this experiment showed that cassava and grated coconut rasio of 6:1 and steaming time of 120 minutes produced the best jongkong ubi, but jongkong ubi which had the longest storage time was produced by cassava and grated coconut ratio 8:1 and steaming time 120 minutes.

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PENGUKURAN RENDEMEN TEBU MENGGUNAKAN GELOMBANG ULTRASONIK

The Measurement of Sucrose Content of Sugar Cane Using Ultrasonic Waves

Amoranto Trisnobudi1
Tjia Liong Hoei2
Enung Rosihan Nugraha3

1Dosen Jurusan Teknik Fisika, Institut Teknologi Bandung
2Dosen Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Universitas Kristen Maranatha
3Alumni Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Universitas Kristen Maranatha

The measurement of sucrose content of sugar cane is usually carried out by using polarimeter and Brix Wager scale. These two apparatus are operated manually so that the accuracy of the measurement results is depended on the operator skill. To overcome this problem we have developed an alternative method that can measure the sucrose content more quickly and accurately than the conventional methods. This new method was carried out by using ultrasonic waves whose velocity depends on the sucrose content. Firstly, the electronic apparatus used was calibrated with 37 samples of sugar cane with various sucrose content from 4.46 % to 7.29 %. The result of this calibration was an empirical equation between the ultrasonic wave velocity V and the sucrose content R, i.e. R ===================================================================== 2.65 V2 – 11,95 V + 17,65 where R in % and V in km/s. Then this equation was stored as database in a computer program that will be used to calculate the sucrose content. Finally, this sucrose content measurement system was tested by using 30 samples of sugar cane. The maximum error of the measurement result was 6.4 %.

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PENGGUNAAN KOMBINASI ADSORBAN UNTUK MEMPERPANJANG UMUR SIMPAN BUAH PISANG CAVENDISH

The Use Combined Adsorbant to Extend the Storing Period of Cavendish Banana

Suryatmi Retno Dumadi1

1Peneliti pada Direktorat Teknologi Agroindustri, BPPT , Gedung II Lt 17 Jl. M. H. Thamrin Jakarta

Post harvest damage of horticulture commodity in Indonesia has reached 30 to 40%. This research is aimed at extending the storing period of cavendish banana in order to extend the market range, while still enabling to maintain the quality of fresh preserved banana as required by consumers. One of the ways to do so is by using combines adsorbant as to control the air of the fruit surrounding.

The type of adsorbant used is as follows : 1,2 and 3% of KMn04 ; 0,5, 1 and 1,5% of iron powder, and 3% of active carbon. The experiment was conducted in completed randomized design, by 10 factors of combined and concentrate adsorbant, and by 6 factors of storing time. The parameters being analyzed includes texture intensity, starch rate, total acid rate, total glucose rate, water rate and reduced glucose rate.

The statistics test results of 10 treatments of combines adsorbant KMn04, iron powder, active carbon which were(1%, 0,5%, 3%), (1%, 1%, 3%), (1%, 1,5%,3%), (2%, 0,5%, 3%), (2%, 1%, 3%), (2%, 1.5%, 3%) (3%, 0,5%, 3%), (3%, 1%, 3%) ( 3%, 1,5%, 3%), suggested that the combined adsorbant (2%, 1,5%, 3%) at 15°C storing temperature is the best. This treatment is the best because it has the highest substances rate up to 72.36% db; relatively small texture change, total acid rate, total glucose rate, water rate and the lowest reduced glucose rate of 3.531% db which is more likely to extend the storing period of cavendish banana for approximately six weeks.

Key Words : horticulture, cavendish, adsorbant, texture, storing period.

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SAYURAN SEBAGAI SUMBER SERAT PANGAN UNTUK MENCEGAH TIMBULNYA PENYAKIT DEGENERATIF

Vegetables as a Source of Dietary Fiber to Prevent Degenerative Diseases

Deddy Muchtadi1

1Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta- IPB

For long time vegetables were thought only as sources of several vitamins; however, it has been shown that vegetables contain other component, which is also important for maintaining body’s health, i.e., dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is a group of polysaccharides oan other polymers, which cannot be digested by upper gastro-intestinal system of human. Dietary fiber can be grouped as soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, showing in different physiological effect. Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) is effective in preventing cardiovascular disease, while insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) can prevent the development of colon cancer, diverticulosis as well as obesity.

Local vegetables found to contain high SDF (higher than 3,06% db) are: watercress, green bean, carrot, eggplant, lettuce, broccoli, spinach, string bean, and aubergine; while which contain high IDF (higher than 40,60% db) are: winged bean, watercress, chinese leaves, katuk leaves, lettuce, green bean, broccoli, carrot and spinach. Cooking (i.e. boiling, steaming and pan frying) decrease the IDF content of vegetables, while their SDF content is not affected by cooking treatments.

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RICE BRAN STABILIZATION AND g-ORYZANOL CONTENT OF TWO LOCAL PADDY VARIETIES IR 64 AND CISADANE MUNCUL

Evy Damayanthi1

1Jurusan Gizi Masyarakat dan Sumber Daya Keluarga, Fakultas Pertanian, IPB

An autoclaving procedure was developed to produce stable rice bran from two local paddy varieties IR 64 and Cisadane Muncul. The stable rice bran showed no significant increase in free fatty acid content for 144 hours at 37oC. In the optimum wet heating process, rice bran was heated at 121oC and held for 3 minutes before cooling for both varieties. Stable rice bran contained 3.8 % moisture and the content of total tocopherol was not much changed by heating process, i.e., 209.8 mg/100 g rice bran oil and 279.8 for control (without heating process) of IR 64 variety and 227.4 mg/100 g rice bran oil and 248.8 for control of Cisadane Muncul variety, respectively. The content of g-oryzanol varied and was depended on the degree of milling ranged from 39.1 to 147.7 mg/100 g rice bran oil for both of IR 64 and Cisadane Muncul rice varieties. The content of soluble dietary fiber varied and was depended on the degree of milling which ranged from 3.56 to 8.76 % for both of IR 64 and Cisadane Muncul rice varieties. The content of insoluble dietary fiber varied and was depended on the degree of milling which ranged from 15.00 to 25.38 % for both of IR 64 and Cisadane Muncul rice varieties.

Keywords : rice bran, autoclave, stabilization, g-oryzanol, total tocopherol, dietary fiber.

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PENINGKATAN KEAMANAN DAN MUTU SIMPAN PINDANG IKAN KEMBUNG (Rastrelliger sp) DENGAN APLIKASI KOMBINASI NATRIUM ASETAT, BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT DAN PENGEMASAN VAKUM

Preservation of Steamed Fish (Rastrelliger Sp) With Combine Method Using Sodium Acetate, Lactic Acid Bacteria Culture and Vacuum Packaging

Betty Sri Laksmi Jenie1, Nuratifa2, dan Suliantari1

1Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta- IPB
2Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta- IPB

This study was carried out to improve the safety and shelf life of cooked kembung fish (Rastrelliger sp), a traditional food called pindang fish. Fresh eviscerated fish was fisrt soaked in 2% NaCl solution for 15 minutes, drained, washed with tap water and drained again. Sodium chloride at 12% concentration (w/w) was distributed on the whole surface of the fish. Fish was then laid on a wooden basket inside a clay pot, steamed for 30 minutes, and then cooled. Combine method applied to the steamed fish (pindang) was soaking in a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum kik and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris in the ratio of 2 : 1 (v/v) containing 4% Na-acetate for 2 hrs and after draining, the product was vacuum packed. The result showed that the combine method using mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria containing 4% Na-acetate could reduce the growth of Staphylococcus aureus by 3-6 log units, decrease the TMA (Trimethylamine) content and maintain the organoleptic properties (texture, appearance and odor) of pindang fish during 6 days storage at room temperature. Control treatment without 4% Na-acetate could only keep the pindang fish for 4 days. Vacuum and nonvacuum packaging did not show any significant difference.

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PENENTUAN WAKTU PANEN DAN KONDISI FERMENTASI KOPI BERDASARKAN AKTIFITAS ENZIM PADA LENDIR BUAH KOPI (Coffee Sp)

Determination of Harvesting Time and Fermentation Conditions of Coffee (Coffee sp) Beans Based on the Fruit Pericarp Enzyme Activity)

Muhammad Said Didu1

1Peneliti Pada Direktorat Teknologi Agroindustri, BPPT, Gedung II Lt 17 Jl. M. H. Thamrin Jakarta

Pectinase enzyme of coffee pericarp, containing pectinesterase and polymetilesterase, is potential to determine harvesting time or to classify coffee beans. The activity of the enzyme on the green fruit is higher than on the yellow one. When the fruit become light red, the activity increaed for the second time and then decrease when the fruit is overripe (dark colored)

The optimum fermentation condition of the fruit is depending on the maturation degree. Study on the fermentation process at 25oC, suggest sorting of harvesting fruits in three groups. (1) fruits are harvested 9-24 days after the fruits reach its yellowish green color, Ao, (2) 25 – 32 days after Ao, and (3) 33 – 38 days after Ao.

Fermenting at 35o C grouping into four types of maturation degree. (1) 9 – 11 days after Ao, (2) 12 – 22 days after Ao, (3) 23 – 30 days after Ao, and (4) 24-36 days after Ao. The optimum harvesting time is when the beans reach light red until the color starts getting dark. The optimum activity of the enzyme pectinase is at 35oC.

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PEMBUATAN PROTEIN KOSENTRAT WHEAT POLLARD SEBAGAI PEMANFAATAN HASIL SAMPING PENGGILINGAN GANDUM

The Production of Wheat Pollard Protein Concentrate, a Wheat Milling Byproduct Utilization

Victoria Valentina Sugijanto1 dan Monang Manullang2

1Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB
2Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB

One of protein resources which is not used maximally in Indonesia is wheat pollard. Wheat pollard is a by-product from wheat millings that contains (protein) higher than wheat flour (17.68% compared to 12-13%). Protein concentrate was extracted by alkali and hydrolysed enzymatically.. Alkali method at pH 10 yielded protein value 62.75% and flour yield 17.17%. On the other hand enzymatic hydrolysis method at minute-75 yielded protein value 68.38% and flour yield 48.17%. Amino acid increased after it was made into protein concentrate, for example lysin at the beginning was 8.00 g/100 g sample become 13.00 g/100 g sample (by alkali method) and 19.11 g /100 g sample (by enzymatic hydrolysis method). The highest physicochemical properties derived from enzymatic hydrolysis method were solubility protein (NSI : 95.73%, PDI : 75.21%), water adsorption 57.79%, fat adsorption 80.67%, foam capacity 47.74%, foam stability 84.61%, emulsification capacity 73.59% and strong gelation at 10%. The total result show that enzymatic hydrolysis method is better than extracted alkali method in protein value, yield, amino acid value, and physicochemical properties.

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KAJIAN SIFAT SPESIFITAS BEBERAPA JENIS LIPASE TEHADAP ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3

The specificity of Several Kinds Lipases on n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Jenny Elisabeth1
T. Yuliani2, P. M. Tambunan2, dan J. M. Purba2

1Pusat Penelitian Kelapa Sawit (PPKS) Jl. Brigjen. Katamso no. 151 – KP Baru, Medan 20158
2Jurusan THP-Fakultas Pertanian, Unika ST. Thomas SU

Several lipases from microbial and plant, i.e Rhizomucor miehei, Pseudomonas sp., Candida antartica, rice bran, and Carica papaya latex (CPL) were examined for synthesis of omega-3 (n-3) PUFA-rich glyceride by hydrolysis and acidolysis reaction. Tuna oil was used in hydrolysis reaction, whereas tuna and palm oils were used as source of triglyceride (TAG) molecules and n-3 PUFA concentrate from tuna oil as source of EPA and DHA in acidolysis reaction.

For hydrolysis reaction, the rice bran and CPL lipases showed the lowest hydrolytic activity of the tuna oil, whereas the R. miehei lipase showed the highest hydrolytic activity but was unable to hydrolyze EPA and DHA. On the contrary, the C. antartica and Pseudomonas sp. lipases acted stronger on hydrolysis of DHA ester bond than EPA.

For acidolysis reaction, all the lipases showed ability to incorporate n-3 PUFA into tuna and palm oils. C. antartica lipase had the maximum DHA incorporation into tuna and palm oils, rice bran lipase had relatively similar ability with R. miehei lipase, and the CPL lipase had the lowest ability. This study proved that rice bran and CPL lipases also had transesterification activity and showed the feasibility of the rice bran lipase to be a biocatalyst for n-3 PUFA-rich glyceride production. Increasing the substrate ratio, of n-3 PUFA concentrate and tuna or palm oil, could increase the EPA and DHA incorporation. The R. miehei, rice bran, and CPL lipases unabled to incorporate DHA into DHA-containing glyceride molecule, whereas C. antartica lipase had the capability in high ratio of n-3 PUFA concentrate to oil. Therefore, the lipases were easier to incorporate n-3 PUFA into palm oil than tuna oil, since the TAG molecules of palm oil was not as complex as tuna oil. It could be suggested that the lipases did not only have acyl chain and positional specificity, but also the whole glyceride structure specificity.

Keywords : acidolysis, lipase, n-3 PUFA, palm oil, specificity, tuna oil.

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AUDIT KINERJA EFISIENSI PRODUKSI AGROINDUSTRI MINUMAN TEH

Production Efficiency Audit on Tea Beverage Agroindustry

Hendra Adiyatna1 dan Marimin2

1Teknik Industri-STT Bina Tunggal (Mahasiswa S-3 PPS TIP-IPB)
2Teknologi Industri Pertanian, PPS-IPB

The objective of this work was to investigate and to apply economic efficiency performance measurement methods for tea beverage agroindustry. These measurements were based on twelve technique and economic efficiency criteria, which illustrate the condition of the processes. This illustration was able to explain the material and the energy utilization, variance of the processes and product, handling of the waste and acceptance in the market. The methodology was divided into three steps: (1) defining the technique and the economic criteria, appropriate to the circumstance of the processes, (2) state efficiency the level status, (3) evaluation and structure prioritizing of the processes improvement alternatives. The results of this work indicates that there are seven appropriate criteria. The status of the efficiency is in the medium level. The improvement priorities recommended include optimization of material and energy usage and minimization of breaktime of the critical processes.

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AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA EKSTRAK KEDAWUNG (Parkia roxburghii G. Don) TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGEN

Antimicrobial Activity of Kedawung Extract (Parkia Roxburghii G. Don) on Food Borne Pathogens

Ervizal A. M. Zuhud1
Winiati Pudji Rahayu2 , C. Hanny Wijaya2
Pipi Puspita Sari3

1Staf Pengajar Jurusan KSH Fahutan-IPB
2Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB
3Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Panngan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB

Kedawung is a Leguminosae/Fabaceae which. It is commonly used as traditional medicine for infection and stomach disoders, caused by bacteria.

The aim of this study is to examine the potential antimicrobial activity of seed, bark, root and kedawung leaf. It is expected that the result will give information on characteristics and concentration of kedawung part which have the highest antimicrobial activity.

The result showed that the bark has the highest antimicrobial activity on Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Extract made from kedawung plant and water (ratio 1:2,b/v) was better than those made with ratios of 1 : 1 or 1 : 3 (b/v). Heat did not decrease its antimicrobial activity. Extract concentration of 10% (21.40 mg/ml) with contact time of 24 hour decreased bacterial growth but did not inactivate them.

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EKSTRAKSI DAN STABILITAS ZAT PEWARNA ALAM DARI KATUL BERAS KETAN HITAM (Oryza sativa glutinosa)

EXTRACTION AND STABILITY OF NATURAL COLORANT FROM RED GLUTINOUS RICE BRAN (Oryza sativa glutinosa)

Tirza Hanum1

1Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian Fakultas Pertanian
Universitas Lampung Bandar Lampung

Three extraction methods were studied to isolate natural colorant from red glutinous rice bran. Stability of extracts in relation to processing conditions and in the model beverages was determined at room temperature. Identifications of anthocyanidins was performed using reversed phase HPLC. Extraction method using acidified methanol solvent showed the highest yield (260,24+28,64 mg/100g). HPLC patern indicated the presence of six major anthocyanidins, two of them were identified as apigenidin and apigenin. Stability of anthocyanin colorant was higher in a lower acid condition and was reduced to the lowest value of 49,4, 65,4, 40,8 and 36,6% by high temperature, UV light, sunlight, and the presence of oxidator agent. respectively. Retention of antocyanin in tanin and ascorbic acid added into the model beverages was lower than in protein containing beverage or control.

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ANALISIS SIFAT FISIOKIMIA PRODUK EKSTRUSI HASIL SAMPING PENGGILINGAN PADI (MENIR DAN BEKATUL)

PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS ON EXTRUDATES MADE FROM BY-PRODUCTS OF RICE MILLING INDUSTRY (BROKEN RICE AND BRAN)

Joko Hermanianto1, Rizal Syarief1
Zakiah Wulandari2

1Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB
2Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB

Extrudates were produced by double screw extrusion cooking under four barrel temperatures (29- 33oC, 29-33oC, 34-39oC, and 121-142oC)., feeder speed of 16- 17 rpm speed of knife of 425-713 rpm and ten formulations of corn, broken rice and bran. The physichochemical characteristics of the products were examined. Ash content, protein content and lipid content increased by increasing the percentage of the bran in formulation. Degree of gelatinization (DG). Expansion of extrudates (EE), Stickiness, Water solubility and absorbition indexes (WSI and WAI), colour of extrudates product (L and b ) decreased with increase in bran concentration.

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KAJIAN PENGARUH PEMANASAN TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA BUMBU GULAI

THE EFFECT OF HEATING ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GULAI SEASONING

Winiati Pudji Rahayu1 dan Dyah Sista Raharjanti2

1Staf pengajar pada Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB
2Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB

The effect of heating on Gulai seasoning on its antimicrobial activity in food system, was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Food system used as growth medium was meat extract and coconut milk (1:1, v/v) and heat treatment applied to this study were stirfrying, boiling and sterilization. The analysis of antimicrobial activity using contact method showed that the inhibition of microbial growth was better in food system with seasoning than that without seasoning. Fresh Gulai seasoning was efective to inhibit total microbe and B. cereus for up to 6 and 24 hour, respectively. After stirfrying,Gulai seasoning inhibited total microbe and B. cereus 6 hours of incubation time. Increasing in time and temperature of heat treatment, resulted in the decrease of antimicrobial activity to total microbe and B. cereus . On the other hand, heat treatment of Gulai seasoning increased antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and the highest antimicrobial activity was reached by boiling Gulai stir-fried seasoning for 20 minutes.

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PENGARUH KONSUMSI JAHE (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) TERHADAP KADAR MALONALDEHIDA DAN VITAMIN E PLASMA PADA MAHASISWA PESANTREN ULIL ALBAAB KEDUNG BADAK, BOGOR

THE EFFECT OF GINGER (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) CONSUMPTION ON PLASMA MALONALDEHYDE AND VITAMIN E CONCENTRATION OF STUDENTS FROM BOGOR

Fransiska R Zakaria1, Hari Susanto2, dan Arif Hartoyo1

1Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB
2Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB

Extracts of ginger contain a great number of substances having antoxidant activity. This reaserch was conducted to study the effect of ginger on malonaldehyde (MDA) as indicator of free radical and vitamin E as one of the nutrient antioxidants. Healthy student subjects were divided into treated (n=====================================================================12) and control group (n=====================================================================12). Treated group was suplemented with ginger drink for 30 days.

At the beginning and the end of intervention, both treatment and control groups were subjected to physical health examination and their peripheral blood were with drawn for analysis of MDA (malonaldehyde) and vitamin E in plasma. Individual data from all groups revealed that treated group has significant decrease of MDA and increase of vitamin E (p<0,01) compare to the control group.The result of this researh revealed that ginger drink has a potent antioxidant activity to decrease MDA and increase vitamin E, level in the plasma.

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EVALUASI NILAI GIZI PRODUK EKSTRUSI DARI PRODUK SAMPING PENGGILINGAN PADI CAMPURAN MENIR DAN BEKATUL

NUTRITION EVALUATION OF EXTRUSION PRODUCTS MADE FROM RICE MILLING BYPRODUCTS (BROKEN RICE AND RICE BRAN)

Rizal Syarief1, Joko Hermanianto1
Erni Ernawati2

1Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB
2Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB

By products of of rice milling, especially broken rice and rice bran, are not commonly used as food product. The purpose of this research was to develop and analyzed the nutrition content of new extruded product made of mixed broken rice and rice bran. The hedonic values were analyzed to choose the best formulation. Nutrition component was analyzed by in vitro and in vivo method. Increasing the concentration of rice bran resulted in increase of the percentage of ash ( 1.29%-3.47%), fat (1.12%-3.11%), crude fiber (0.58%-2.09%), some of essential amino acid,FCE(17.18%-27.28%) and decrease of protein digesbility.

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ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA ATSIRI IKAN PATIN (Pangasius sutchi)

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN FRESH WATER CATFISH (Pangasius sutchi)

Edison1

1Laboratorium Kimia Pangan
Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Riau
Kampus Bina Widya Km. 12.5 Pekanbaru

Volatile compounds of fresh water catfish (Pangasius sutchi) cultured in pond and cage were extracted by micro simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction (SDE), and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 28 volatile compounds of Pangastius sutchi were detected. Of these compounds, twelve were identified as aromatics, aldehyde and miscellaneous coumpounds. Catfish cultured in pond contained higher levels of the aromatic compunds as compared to thase raised in cage.

Keyword : Fresh water catfish : Pangasius sutchi; Volatile compounds.

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SINTESIS KOMPONEN BAWANG PUTIH VINIL-DITIIN DAN TURUNANNYA SERTA UJI AKTIVITAS ANTI KAPANGNYA DENGAN METODE BIOAUTOGRAFI

SYNTHESIS OF GARLIC COMPOUND VINYL-DITHIIN AND ITS DERIVATIVES, AND THEIR ANTI-FUNGAL DETERMINATION USING BIOAUTOGRAPHY METHODE

C. Hanny Wijaya1

1Staf Pengajar Jurusan TPG-Fateta, IPB

Improvement on stability, physical characteristics and physiological activities of vinyl-dithiin has been attempted through oxidation and methylation. A bioautography method with Cladosporium cucumerinum showed that the presence of sulphoxide compound increased the anti-fungal activity sharply. Best activity was obtained with the compounds with SSO functional group. Activity was slightly decreased by addition of methyl-group. Stereoisomer also influenced the activity of compound, although not to significantly. Isomer of 3,4-dihidro-3-isopropenil-5-metil-4H-1, 2-ditiin-1-oxide has interesting properties such as crystallized easily, posses weak odor and relatively strong in anti fungal activity. A Simple methallylsynthesis procedure for disufide has been developed using metallyl chloride as starting material.

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PRODUKSI L-LISIN OLEH GALUR MUTAN Corynebacterium glutamicum DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN MOLASE

L-LYSINE PRODUCTION BY MUTANT STRAINS OF Corynebacterium glutamicum USING MOLASSES

Budiatman Satiawihardja1
Erliza Noor1
Ahmad Haryo Oktamto1

1Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB
1Jurusan Teknologi Industri Pertanian, Fateta-IPB
1Alumni Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB

The objective of this study was to obtain fermentation process for producing l-lysine using two mutans of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The process used a low cost natural raw material molasses as a carbon source which underwent a special treatment before its application for fermentation medium. Strain Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21543 produced higher L-lysine as compared to Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21513. ATCC strain 21543 produced using a 10.98 g/l L-lysine modified basal B medium containing molasses which was equivalent to 20 % of original molasses in terms of its sugar content.

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EVALUASI MODEL-MODEL PENDUGAAN UMUR SIMPAN PANGAN DARI DIFUSI HUKUM FICK UNIDIREKSIONAL

EVALUATION OF SHELF-LIFE EQUATION MODELS DERIVED FROM UNIDIRECTIONAL FICK’S LAW

M. Arpah1 dan Rizal Syarief1

1Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB

The aim of this research was to study the variation of shelf-life values, obtained in quantifying shelf-life of biscuits among models of accelerated storage studies (ASS) from unidirectional Fick’S law. Shelf-life of biscuits is defined as the length of time of a packaged biscuits can be stored before the onset quality change appears.

Four models: Heiss-Eichner (1971), Labuza (1983), Rudolph (1986) and Half Value Period or HVP model (Syarief, 1986) were evaluated. These models shared a common basic principle that they were all derived and developed from unidirectional Fick’s law. Therefore, each parameter of individual model can be compared to the athers. A semi empirical approach using reaction kinetics through Arrhenius plot was used as a real shelf-life values.

Quantification resulted in two categories of shelf-life values, First those which higher than expected value and second, were lower than expected.

Parameter evaluation of components of Heiss-Eichner and Labuza models clearly shown less in number than components of Rudolph and HVP models. This led to a conclusion that the more sophisticated models gave higher shelf-life values as compared to the Arhenius model.

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